June 1865 was the month of two of the final surrenders of Confederate land forces at the end of the Civil War.
At the beginning of June, Confederate general Edmund Kirby Smith signed the documents that surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department—the last unsurrendered Confederate department, comprising approximately 36,000 troops—to the Federals. Although Smith had rejected a surrender proposed by John Pope in mid-May, once Smith began hearing about the surrender of Joseph E. Johnston and the capture of Jefferson Davis, he sent his chief of staff, Simon Buckner, to meet with Union general Edward Canby in New Orleans on May 26 to accept the terms of surrender and sign the agreement. Then, a week later, on June 2, Smith traveled to Galveston, Texas, to put his own signature on the documents.
The last Confederate general to surrender was Stand Watie. On June 23, Watie, a Cherokee chief and brigadier general, surrendered his First Indian Brigade (composed of Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, and Osages) at Doaksville, in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).
Also in June, the CSS Shenandoah, a Confederate raider, fired the final shot of the Civil War. Unaware that the war had ended, the ship’s commander, James Waddell, continued attacking U.S. shipping and on June 22 fired at a whaling boat in the Bering Sea. On August 2, Waddell learned from a British ship that the war was over and, rather than surrendering in the U.S., sailed 17,000 miles to turn his ship over in Britain on November 5.