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Loyalists During the Revolutionary War

At the time of the American Revolution, Great Britain was the most powerful country on the earth. When Patriots decided to stand up to British rule, it became necessary for colonists to choose sides. For some, the decision was not easy. As many as one-third chose to align with the crown. They were known as “Loyalists” or “Tories.”

Fold3 Image - Hutchinson house, Boston
Loyalists had a variety of reasons for supporting Great Britain. Some were successful merchants who relied on a working relationship; others were pacifists who wanted to avoid war; and some served in prominent roles appointed by the British government.

One prominent Loyalist was Thomas Hutchinson who served as the Governor of Massachusetts. Hutchinson was born in Boston and was an avid collector of historical materials related to early Massachusetts colonial history. In 1765, after the Stamp Act, angry colonists burst into his Boston house, ransacked it and destroyed the contents. Hutchinson and his family barely escaped. Most of the historical documents were destroyed. Hutchinson was eventually replaced as Governor and left the colonies for London, where he later died.

Patriot or Loyalist? The question created division within communities. In a letter to John Hancock, George Washington expressed concerns about Loyalists who are “in Arms against us.” Yet Washington wanted to leave the door open for those who were willing to join the revolution. “I should suppose, that it would be expedient and founded in sound policy, to give every suitable assurance to induce them to come. Such an event would be attended with Salutary effects – would weaken the enemy – distress them greatly and would probably have a most happy influence in preventing Others from joining their Arms,” Washington wrote.

In order to alleviate the burden on British troops, British officials developed a plan to enlist more loyalists to fight. Lt. General Charles Cornwallis rallied Loyalists in southern colonies. They initially had success at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina, but as they marched north, many Loyalists feared retribution and inadequate protection and chose to stay out of the fray.

Cornwallis issued a proclamation urging Loyalists to take up arms. “It is his Majesty’s most gracious wish to rescue his faithful and loyal subjects from the cruel tyranny under which they have groaned for several years,” Cornwallis wrote. “I invite all such loyal & faithful subjects to repair without loss of time with their arms and ten days Provisions to the Royal headquarters now erected at Hillsborough, where they will meet with the most friendly reception.” His proclamation did not elicit the volunteers he needed. Cornwallis was eventually defeated at Yorktown and the military aspect of the American Revolution ended. After the revolution, some Loyalists chose to remain in the colonies and were offered protection without fear of retribution under the Paris Peace Treaty.

If you would like to learn more about the role of Loyalists in the American Revolution, search our Revolutionary War collection on!


  1. Edward Myers says:

    Many of Washington’s troops were 17 year olds. They went for days with out food . They march for days with out shoes and in the middle of winter. They went with out pay for months and years.. When the war was over they walked home. Some hundreds of miles.

    • Jan Kern says:

      these are facts the ones who kneel in protest should know. Perhaps they could relate to what some suffered just to be in this great country

    • T. M. Davis says:

      Except that everyone commenting here had free WHITE ancestors that were free and those kneeling today had ancestors that were BLACK and slave, then have had another 150 years as second class citizens still not really free. Our country’s entire history is built on the freed to protest. So they are exercising that right, one of the few they feel they truly have left.

    • Jim Richardson says:

      Freedom is not free. These men regardless of the potential consequences completed the task(s) they set out to perform. These men and their families sacrificed many things. Some of those and many others, however, sacrificed all. May God bless them all for eternity. They created the most free nation on Earth then, and it still is today.

      My family tree had patriot veterans and some declared by the DAR to be Tories. Offspring of the Tories were later Militiamen for the U.S. We helped defeat the British, again, in the War of 1812 by defending the U.S. during the Battle of New Orleans. We had intense dislike for the Brits back then, and intensely detested the royal tyrants. Given that those family members (only one that I know of) declared Tory by the DAR lived in a section of SE Georgia that was occupied and overrun by the British, we can today give them a little slack since we have no clue what the Patriots, nor the Tories, had to endure under that tyranny. Clearly there are no good choices when you are already occupied by the enemy. Our family men went on to fight in many other wars for freedom.

      When I went to war in SEA, I had a squadron mate, who decided he no longer desired to fight and, possibly, to die. The USAF permitted him to simply turn in his wings and he was given a non-combat job, which were abundant. Actually, no one wants to fight side-by-side with someone who may not fully engage when he is needed. Even he though would not likely kneel for the national anthem. After all, he and his family are still free.

  2. Theron P. Snell says:

    A gloss so broad as to be a bit misleading. There were a number of loyalist regiments, many families went to Canada and to the Caribbean….and some went west as well.

    For a fiction treatment, read Kenneth Roberts’ novel OLIVER WISWELL…then his pro-revolutionaries novel: RABBLE IN ARMS. Great historical fiction.

    • James L. Owens says:

      Roger. Those books lent to me by my great aunts interested me in history before I was in the fourth grade. Really… My god father gave me a copy of “The Last of the Mohegans” for Christmas when I was in the third grade.

    • Jessica Holland says:

      Some also went to St. Augustine, Florida. The town was a starting off point for travel to the Carribean, but many stayed there or settled west and north, including a small area in Jacksonville.

  3. T. M. Davis says:

    Perhaps some of the most bitter attacks took place on the NY frontier, including the Mohawk and Schoharie valleys and points west. Many of the British forces included their Iroquois Nations allies and Tory units such as those of the Butlers. Several of my Palatinate German ancestors in those areas fought with the Patriots, but at one 6th or 7th great uncle Mattice, Nicolas, left Schoharie about 1777 for Canada and several if his sons came back with Butlers Tories to kill former neighbors and destroy farms. Nicholas’ brother Frederick inherited the family farm with Nicholas’ departure, but when the British, Tories and Chief Joseph Brant’s Indians raided the valley they burned an estimated 400 buildings. The first lit was Frederick’s barn south of Middleburgh. A couple good books are “A Company of Heroes” by Dale Van Every and “The Burning of the Valleys” by Gavin K. Watt, which is written from the British/Canadian perspective.

    • Bill Krebs says:

      My g-g-g-g-grandfather was Col. Sam Clyde of Cherry Valley, NY when Brant and the Tories burnt the valley and killing all they could. An Uncle Col. Sam Campbell, also of Cherry Valley led the retreat from Oriskany, and also defended the fort. Unfortunately, Campbell’s wife was captured and taken to Canada never to be heard from again.

    • Lisa Harris says:

      Perhaps we are related in some distant way, as I have a Palatine ancestor as well. My family (last name Bain) was divided by the revolutionary war, as were many in New York. My direct ancestor and some others chose to remain loyal to the crown and were granted land in upper Canada (close to Kingston), while other siblings fought for the revolution. Some members moved back after the war while others remained in Canada. When I learned of this story all I could think of was how much grief it must have caused their mother.

    • T. M. Davis says:

      My main Palatinate family in Schoharie County, NY., was Mattice, with Hager, Kast, Petrie, Zeh among others that married in. Other families of mine that spent some time in Schoharie County, though probably after the Revolutionary War, included Benedict and Chadderdon/Chatterton. The Chatterton/Chadderdons came from White Plains, Westchester County, N.Y. My sixth great-grandfather farmed the land where most of the 1776 Battle of White Plains took place – Chatterton Hill. Their house was at the bottom of the hill and the family is said to hid in the basement during the battle.

    • Tanya McNiel says:

      Thank you for this information. I have loyalist ancestors who settled in Merrickville, Ontario right after the Revolution. The Staffords were from Saratoga, NY. I’m not sure precisely where the Nettletons came from. I’d like to understand what happened.

    • John Benedict says:

      Hi, my last name is Benedict, but all I know is my dad was born in Utah but then moved to Sacto. and my mom was from South Dakota. I was wondering how I could look up my ancestors and where I should start… and Thank you very much…

    • T. M. Davis says:

      I bought a book “The Genealogy of the Benedicts in America (1870) by Henry Marvin Benedict and Erastrus Cornelius Benedict through either Walmart online or Amazon. It is a paperback digitized reprint of the original 1870 book produced by

      It goes back to the late 1500s and early 1600s with the first American settlers. The Benedicts came from England, but likely were there only a couple generations after having come from France by way of Germany and Holland, much as my Palatinate Germans did (though the Germans were only in England a few months). They were French Huguenots (Protestants) oppressed by Catholic France.

      My family of Benedicts apparently included a William in England, but a Thomas was the first in America as 21-year-old young man in 1638 who eventually married a Mary Bridgum in Massachusetts Bay colony. Mary apparently lived to age 100 and passed down the early family history to her grandson Deacon James Benedict, who recorded it in 1755.

      I am a descendent of the family line of John Benedict (my 7th great-grandfather). born at Southold, Long Island and lived until about 1727 . He was the son of Thomas Jr.

      There are several genealogy services online – Ancestry, of course, or My Heritage, WikiTree, Geni (Genealogy). And Find a Grave can be helpful. Search Find a Grave, plug in a name of your ancestor as far back as you are sure of, and it might come up with the name and the parents. Then plug in the parent’s name and work your way back.

    • Jane Cooper Williams Kirby says:

      I totally agree with you on the kneeling T.M…Well said!!

  4. Karen skinner says:

    I am a skinner from Thomas of Malden line. My grandfather & great grandfather were from New York & Pennsylvania. My great grandmother who was a morden …her family were both patriots & mostly loyalists. Her lineage is linked to Ralph morden who was hung for treason for helping Robert land escape. Robert land’s ancestor was Charles Lindbergh!

    • Barbara Buxton says:

      do you mean Charles Lindbergh was a progenitor of Robert Land? He was born after his ancestor Robert Land

  5. Gwyn Norman Crump Sr says:

    I think that too much fiction is placed upon the comments of George Washington and others relating to the Tories and to the confiscation of all of the properties of anyone even falsely accused of not being a friend of the Revolution. As a descendant of Patriots from the French and Indian War onward including the Civil War in which my ancestors fought to defend the US Constitution against Invasion of their colony/State by foreign troops and to support the Constitution ban on taking of Property without Conpensation as determined by a jury of one’s peers. One ancestor, Captain Daniel Little was murdered by friends of soon to be Colonel Griffith Rutherford because he went before the Rowan County NC Connittee of Safety to protest the kidnapping of his Major Dunn Milita Commander and the Crown Attorney from their beds by the Mecklenburg Committee of Safety and their banning them to prison in Charleston SC. He had stood up against this taking without his troops without success. He was promised that this would not happen again. He was then given the order by this Committee of Safety to take his Militia Company to join with the same Mecklenburg troops under Colonel Polk for the Snow Campaign against the So called Tories in upper SC. When Captain Daniel Little dying body arrived home, his son, my ancestor Captain Peter Little, wrote the will and the father affixed his seal on same just prior to his dying in December 1775. Within weeks Captain Griffith Rutherford was at Hillsborough NC being made Colonel of the Rowan County Milita troops. He tried for over five years to confiscate the property of Captain Daniel Little, Peter Little, all the minor Little children, and the second and third husbands of Daniel Little’s widow. The provision in the Constitution relative to the requirement that one must be tried by a jury of his peers in his own location, that the taking of property is prohibited without jury action awarding compensation or finding of illegality in its acquisition, and the prohibition against punishing the blood relatives comes directly from Captain Daniel Little’s stand for the rights of citizens. When Captain Peter Little came back from delivering tanned hides to the Moravians at Salem NC for the Moravians to make shoes for General Greene’s Continental Army troops, he was charged by the Rutherford gang with being a Tory and his trial resulted in a hung jury; however, the Court then held that General Rutherford was to cease the taking of property without a court order directing the confiscation. At that time, General Rutherford, who had broken his Parole given after his surrender at Camden to gain fame and fortune, had resumed his being General of the NC Militia with the further power and economic positions of Commissioner of Confiscated Property and Military Commissioner of Stores and supplies. He and his cronies were taking property simply because a few thieves swore that the property owner had not done enough to fight the Tories. The German Lutheran community around Salisbury NC took on the crooked General and got themselves also in hot water with the Confiscation gang. Most Tories in NC had their property confiscated without any compensation and faced prison if they did not leave the state within a short time. The Moravians who opposed the war but did not get hauled into court, were nevertheless made to provide shoes and other supplies to the Patriots in lieu of serving in the Militia. Some did join the Militia. The Quakers on the other hand refused to fight for either side. They were assessed triple taxes for their non fighting stance, but then had the bad problem of having everything they had taken by the British, Tories, and Patriots as the groups came thru. Captain Daniel Little, one of the first three Justice of the Peace in newly formed Rowan County, had John Little lost and presumed killed at Camden, his son, Captain Peter Little, took over as Captain of the Rowan German and British Militia company under Colonel Rutherford, his other sons and Peter operated the tannery and their Inn in Salisbury NC. After the Rev War was over, the ornery Rutherford persisted in trying to illegally confiscate property from the local people. Further, his own Colonel McDowell was charged with seven felonies committed doing the same extortion and thievery action as Rutherford was doing. One of my ancestors was on the General Court Martial and McDowell was found guilty of five of the seven felonies. Rutherford was faced with a serious problem since he had to approve or reject the findings. If he rejected the findings, the matter would have to go before the colonial legislature which would expose his own illegality as well as McDowell”s. In the NC Archives you will find the most interesting example of governmental fraud and misrepresentation. Rutherford upheld the findings of the Courts Martial and proclaimed that Colonel McDowell could no longer command the Burke County Militia; however, because what he was doing was trying to win the war,s which was a falsehood because he was trying to obtain fine horses and land and wealth for himself , Rutherford would allow McDowell form a different company for Morgantown NC to command. Since a second company would be then in existence in the area, the area would need a General so McDowell being Senior in Service would be made Brigadier General! This created such a stink in the German Lutheran community area that had been taken into Burke county on its forming petitioned the NC to be removed from old Burke County and reattached to old Lincoln County which separation was granted rather quickly. Two of my Shook ancestor brothers, Jacob and Andrew Shook had to leave Burke County for their own safety because they had been part of the complaining witnesses who had brought charges. Jacob Shook went into Old Buncombe County where he had a sawmill and farm where Bishop of the new Methodist Church had his first Western NC religious meeting. His brother Andrew later joined him from his father’s farm in the newly constituted Lincoln County NC. Both criminals have counties named for them in NC. McDowell was so mistrusted by the Patriot militia that he was sent to Hillsbourgh NC to ask for a Continental Officer to command them just before the Battle of Kings Mountain. Not a single Continental dollar or soldier or gun was at Kings Mountain. General Rutherford had not a single thing to do with the battle just as he had nothing to do with the winning of the Battle or Ramseur Mills. In fact, my backswoods ancestors were described as backwoods savages by both Cornwallis and George Washington who did not like the Germans either. Colonel Hambright took over Major Chronicle Troops after Chronicle was killed and Colonel Hambright stayed until the end on his horse because his leg wound was so severe and bloody that he had to be carried to his cabin on Kings Mountain to be treated and to take weeks to recover. The battle was fought on Hambright and Chronicle’s deer camp. The sad end to this tale is Colonel Hambright was never given a pension or land for his effort; McDowell ended up with tens of thousands of acres of land in NC and further TN. The Kings Mountain National Park is to great extent land donated or sold dirt cheap by the Hambright family. He is buried near the park and his descendants have a Reunion around the time of the battle each year. The cemetery was desecrated by mining and the SC county dumping ground until the family started protecting it.

    To sum up everything I said above taking issue with the so called nice things said about the treatment of Tories and also German and backwoodsmen by George Washington; That is a bunch of hogwash. BTW, now that George Washington’s letters and papers are publicly available from the National Archives satellite location at the U of VA, you can find that George Washington described the attributes that he demanded for his guardsmen. Over six feet tall with good military skills and NO GERMANS! Ben Franklin was opposed to letting Germans teach school because he feared the Germans would supersede the British in PA.

    • T. M. Davis says:

      Except Washington didn’t seem to discriminate against Palatinate Germans in the Schoharie and Mohawk valleys of New York, who provided much wheat and other supplies to the Continental Army as well as fighting British troops and their Iroquois Nation and Tory allies such as Chief Joseph Brant, Butler’s Rangers and Adam Crysler and his brothers. The NY frontier was scene of some of the most vicious Tory/Patroit interactions of the war.

    • This is fascinating and it gives me insight as to what my ancestors may have experienced. I have German ancestors who lived in Rowan County and Iredell County during the Revolutionary War. One of them was a guard in Capt Henry Berger’s Company, Salisbury Dist Gaol, according to the NSDAR web site.

    • Peter Proctor says:

      There is nothing better than reviewing family history, especially i your case, as it is so revealing.

    • Jim Kline says:

      My German ancestors came to Berks County, Pennsylvania in the early 1700’s. Back then the predominant language was German and the German language was dominant well into the 1800’s. My father and grandfather spoke Pennsylvania “Dutch”. However, in those days very few people were six feet tall. My ancestors included.

    • John McGinley says:

      Next time use paragraphs!

    • Linda Logan Blanchard says:

      My Logan ancestors lived near King’s Mountain. The were of Scots-Irish descent, or maybe lowland Scots. 4 brothers fought at Kings Mountain–2 Patriots and 2 Loyalists. Best guess–my ancestor was one of the Loyalists. He seemingly reconciled with his brothers, but the other died a pauper.

  6. Cliff Roberts says:

    After the war, Loyalists were welcomed to Canada with open arms and given 200 acres of prime land each (including the children) as a reward for their service. New York loyalists, like the Albany family of David Springer, help found cities like Niagara, St. Catherine, Hamilton and Toronto.

  7. D. Duggar says:

    I have 9 to 10 known ancestors that served on the American side during the Revolution, I know, however, there must be at least one or more that were Loyalist. Thank you for publishing this new material

  8. As a British Person who was looking at something else on the net and spotted this information re. The American Civil War etc, it was one of the most interesting articles I have read in years. When I was a young boy, and we heard about the goings on in the USA about the Civil war, we never had any information except the war was becos it was to do with the Slavery going on. To who ever wrote this, Many thanks kits really opened my eyes.

  9. Gail McArthur says:

    Although I’m Canadian born, I had a number of Quaker ancestors living in New York state (Long Island, Westchester, Orange County, etc) at the time of the revolution. And a couple brick walls in this line – I would to know of any literature that depicts the lives of Quakers during the revolution – fiction/non-fiction. Given their pacifist stance, I suspect some may have been Loyalists, but have very little info of a couple of lines prior to 1800. Thanks all for this interesting thread!

    • Jennifer Campbell says:

      I, too, had some Westchester Loyalists ancestors (Canfield) who settled in Bedford, Nova Scotia following the war. A fairly large number of the Loyalists from that area were provided land there, I believe. There’s an online course with videos of lectures at Yale University (Open Yale Courses) on the Revolutionary War that I have been wanting to view to try to get a better understanding of all of the considerations during that time.

    • Elizabeth McArthur says:

      Jennifer, thanks for this! That Yale course sounds really interesting. i’ve found a number of my ancestors who did fight in the revolution, on the U.S. side. My paternal grandfather was born in Michigan, and I’ve traced all of his lines back to at least the early 1700s in New England and New York!

  10. My ancestors came to Ontario as Loyalists and I understand one at least participated in the burning of Washington later in the War of 1812. I believe they participated in the “Long Point Settlement” but i have had trouble tracing them -perhaps because both my grandfather and grandmother shared the common surname of Williams. Can anybody help?

    • Barbara Walker says:

      Some of my ancestors on my father’s side were Loyalists and also went to Canada (I believe it was Ontario). My cousin, Loren, does a lot of research and went to Canada this year to find grave sites of our great-great-great grandfather (not sure if that is all the greats I need). Send me a reply so I have your email address and I will ask him if he is interested in helping you. Who knows? Our ancestors may have known each other.

    • John Williams says:

      My address is [email protected]. Any info would be much appreciated!

    • Jane Cooper Williams Kirby says:

      John my maiden name is Williams as well. Best advice is follow your grandparents parents and their parents and on down the line. is a coldmine for finding your lineage. My lineage comes from New England and Georgia. My DNA states I’m 75% English and Wales and 20% Irish and Scottish..

  11. Peter Proctor says:

    i only hope that somebody can.

  12. Larry V Howe says:

    My 5th. grandfather was Lt. William Howe, married to Margaret VanOrden, he was in battle at “The Blockhouse” July 19, 1780, as United Empire Loyalist.
    William his wife, Margaret and 4 children were removed to Canada.on the ship “Amphitrite” with 360 passengers.

  13. Suzee SoldanEls Oberg says:

    Although I can count more than a dozen revolutionary soldiers and female patriots among my ancestors, one of my favorite ancestors was a Torie. At least he was called that in a letter I found where an ancestor of my best friend since childhood, Richard Henry Lee, wrote to the Governor of VA complaining about, Fauntleroy Dye, my ancestor’s Tory sympathy. He was jailed as a result and ended up in Kentucky after the War. Some Dye descendants dispute this but the letter and result seem to me to be ample proof. I love finding so-called black sheep ancestors as it makes them appear more human to me.

  14. Meerpohl Jim says:

    My direct Compatriot ancestor was born on a boat while the family immigrated from Wales to Chester County PA. He was 24 when the war stoke out and as the second son in the Evans family had been made to serve as an apprentice in the gunsmith trade. Sampson Evans joined the 5th PA Militia in 1776, served six months, and found out upon his return his family had been ostracized by the loyalists in their community. The family picked up the household and moved to rural VA, near Modern day Lynchburg. He helped the family resettle in VA for 3 years, but rejoined the VA militia firmed in 1779 by Col. Lynch and Campbell. He was made a Sergeant in a rifle company since he had experience during his first service at the battles of Fort Mifflin, Battle of the Redbank, etc. . His company marched to Guilford Courthouse and was placed by General Nathaniel Greene on the right flank. Three times they repulsed the British attempt to out flank or over run their position. Their units held, at high cost, with both his Captain and Lieutentant falling mortally wounded in action. Sampson stayed in the VA militia when his unit was reformed and marched to Yorktown. His service to our country ended when Cornwallis surrendered. He lived to give this information in a deposition in 1813 at the Appomattox Courthouse. Sampson Evans lived to be 90 years old and passed in his home in Concord VA. In 1832.

    • Gwyn Norman Crump Sr says:

      Is it possible that the Lynch and Campbell VA Militia group were also fighting with my ancestors at Kings Mountain under Campbell? Later some of this group fought on at Cowpens under General Morgan before being at Guilford Court House where Greene’s cowardice caused him to remove his artillery and the Calvary under his direct command from the battle before Morgan”s Virgina men and the Southern Militia took their last stand in the woods while the NC Calvary under the NC Calvary Major Baron De Glaubeck (Alias for Another German Prussian Calvaryman) and the Calvary of the Marquis De Breteyne drove off the British Calvary from the area at which time Cornwallis fired his cannon into all the combatants including Cornwallis’s own Infantry? It was at the end of this event that the VA Militia under Colonel Campbell and the other Southern Militia Regiments refused to serve under any more of George Washington’s Generals. It was a critical moment in our history because Washington was already being Questioned about his lack of effort to win the war by members of the Continental Congress including the Congress’s President. Washington offered to have the Southern Militia serve under the French General Lafayette in VA in Support of the VA Continental German Regiment under General Peter Muhlenburg. Mad Anthony Wayne’s PA Continental Troops were also promised to Lafayette but they refused to come until after the mutiny was put down with execution of several of the Wayne NCO’S. Within a month after this compromise was accepted, the Colonel of the VA Militia who had refused to serve under any of George Washington”s Generals was dead. Colonel Malmedy was also killed in a duel in what some think was an assassination because he was too successful in winning battles. Please contact me at [email protected] if you have any family lore about these very telling instances. BTW, the same General Greene tried to take the calvary horses the Daniel Morgan men captured from Tarleton at Cowpens near Charleston SC after Yorktown so he could sell them. These VA troops rode off with their horses to Winchester VA to be discharged by Retired General Morgan. They were not prosecuted for mutiny, but Greene refused to honor their back pay claims by saying their taking of these horses was their payment. Greene was trading with the British still trapped at Charleston SC while prohibiting the local farmers from selling food to the British troops. The property Greene’s widow was living at when Washington visited Savannah after the war was stolen from the German Lutheran colony at New Ebenezer which was the rice plantation of that colony that their murdered senior senior pastor lived on. Across the river was the confiscated property earlier owned by the Swiss Reformed people (Moravians) that Mad Anthony Wayne claimed as his own.

  15. D. Duggar says:

    No message

    • T. M. Davis says:

      Gwen Norman Crump, Few people understood then or today that George Washington didn’t have to WIN the war against the British, he only had to not lose it. He knew he could not risk a climatic battle against bad odds that he would lose and thus lose the war. The Continental Army and American colonial militia units only had to survive and outlast the British, which is essentially what happened. The British public and Parliament grew tired of the financial and human cost of the war. Defeating Cornwallis at Yorktown was the final straw in British public opinion. And yet, the “war” was not officially ended for almost two more years. The same strategy was basically used by the Confederate states during the Civil War., While the North had to conquer the South (and it finally took until Grant came along that a Union general understood it was not so much about conquering territory as it was crushing the Southern armies and their will to fight,) the South’s only real hope was the North would tire of the war and let them go, which almost happened except Northern armies scored enough victories, especially after Gettysburg and the first seven or eight months of 1864 to assure Lincoln’s re-election and seal the fate of the Confederacy. In WWI, the allies won without really denting German territory, but they clearly, with the arrival of the fresh American units, were going to lose and their leaders were wise enough to realize it. Unfortunately, the lack of a total, geographic victory led directly to the Stab in the Back territory that Hitler used to rise to power resulting in an even worst WWII. Heck, even the North Vietnamese realized they only had to outlast American patience, which they did, to win the Vietnam War. The same strategy is going on today with radical Islamic terrorists in Iraq and Afghanistan. You quite often don’t have to have total military victory to achieve victory. Before modern times, many wars were fought without the total war exhibited by the Civil War and WWII.

  16. Joe Szeker says:

    My girlfriends ancestors were some of those loyalists that went to Canada. They fought with Butler’s Rangers and with the Six Nations as scouts. They were some of the first settlers to cross the Niagara River to farm to raise foods for the refugees. One group, including a direct ancester of my partner, walked from the Finger Lakes to Fort Niagara in October/November because of fear of retribution. It was a group of 5 women and 31 children and they made it safely. There were Secords on the American side as well as there are records of pensions paid out. Borther against brother, father against son, one might say the American Revolution was more a Civil War.

    • Peter Proctor says:

      so very interesting to read these comments and find out how other people lived and survived in those days, what intrigues me is the horrendous fighting that went on between fellow countrymen, and even families in those days..

  17. It has been told that my Great, great, Grandfather Samuel Wharton 1761-1841 of Virginia joined the revolution after his father died, his mother remarried and Samuel was mistreated by his step father. Samuel was wounded in the final siege at Yorktown, returned home and married a Letitia Hutchinson and raised a large family, died,and is buried on his farm in Louisa County, Va. Would love to know more of Samuel & his wife whose mother was a Redd I’m told.

    • Debbie Anweiler says:

      I have a grandmother who was a Redd also. Are you on Ancestry? I am and have checked your Samuel Wharton wife. Her mother was Elizabeth Redd. One of Samuel and Letitia’s sons was named John Redd Wharton.
      If you are not on Ancestry I can help you with info. My email address is [email protected]

  18. Me again, after reading all these articles about peoples Ancesters, the way they did battle etc continually as I read it then having to emigrate?? to Canada, I realise how lucky I was. my Ancesters were not having to fight one another in some cases taking place in the USA at those times. I am aware that there are loads of people there that have the same surname as me, and according to Ancestry, load of people that might be related to me might have been involved in the conflicts you write about, but, not to my knowledge

  19. Dorothy Mueller says:

    Fascinating! All of it. Thank you, all.

    • I totally agree with you on this. As I have a few American friends, I often wonder if they are aware of all these happenings at theses times, as it is real history to them
      To me, it is knowledge which I personally have never heard of before. We were told about the pilgrims Progress ect, but basically, that was it. One other thought, My eldest Son was in the Royal Navy for 27 years and they visited the US many times. .He lives in Gosport in the south of England, they were touring the US not many years ago, and in their travels they Suddenly came across?? Gosport!! They were so astonished, they went to the Town Hall, as we call it, spoke to a lady , told her that they lived in our Gosport and she then brought out a ledger with everything about Gosport, their Citizens etc. They could’nt believe what they were shown.

  20. David George says:

    I have an interesting dilemma. My name is George but all my male ancestor Y-DNA matches are with Stringfellows. And it appears that a Henry Stringfellow fathered a child by a Martha George about 1795 in Richmond County North Carolina. My great grandfather John L. George was born in 1817 in Anson County North Carolina.. His father may have been Burton George born in 1795 in the same area – perhaps the child of Henry Stringfellow and Martha George?
    I know there was a Loyalist named David George in The border area of North and South Carolina who was captured in the Snow campaign and a black pastor named David George who later sent to Canada and on to Liberia.
    I have an old book with inscriptions “Richard (Naton, Eaton, Caton, Moton?) his book, Benjamin Adams his righting, July 15, 1778 Tryon County, Broad River. Another name which appears in the book is M.D Williams.
    Ancestors on the George side include Cox Henson, and Rankin. Ancestors on my mothers side are Harbison, Curry, James Moffett, Smith.

    • Can you please send me any info which refers to this M.D. Williams

    • David George says:

      I have no information whatsoever. It is just a name written on a page in the book, “Sherlock’s Discourse on Death.” It is a well worn book as if kept in someone’s hip pocket.
      None of the names in the book are identifiable as far as my known ancestry.

  21. Gwyn Norman Crump Sr. says:

    reply to TM Davie and Poctor comments is needed to enlighten the public:

    the following historical facts are damning to the theory that George Washington, benjamin Lincoln, Gates, and Nathaniel Greene were being diligent in trying to win the Rev. War: Gates and Benedict Arnold sent the true hero of the Capture of Ft. Ticoranda NY Ethan Allen to Canada to be captured and never exchanged so Gates and Arnold reaped the credit; Gates and Arnold claimed credit for the victories at Bemis Farm and Saratoga when the true heroes were Daniel Morgan and his sharpshooter riflemen and Polish Military Engineer Kosciusko who demanded that Gates move from his intended battle site to the Bemis Farm location which location would have still failed had not Morgan and his men defied Gates order to not engage by attacking and driving back the British troops during which time near the last decisive action before the British retreat, Benedict Arnold comes riding up on his horse to get his leg wound (both falsely claimed credit for the victory which Washington did not contradict at which time Colonel Daniel Morgan resigned his commission and went back to Winchester VA); Washington sends Benjamin Lincoln and General Peter Muhlenburg south to defend Charleston SC from the first British attempt to take the port only to have Lincoln go to the west of Savannah to New Ebenezer GA to allow the British to go North to attack Charleston SC by land while the town was thought to be lightly defended. Only the arrival of Colonel Pulaski and his foreign Calvary along with SC Militia General Moultrie to establish a stout defense prevented Charleston from capture. The palmetto log forts with sand bags withstood the British warship cannon fire and the British land force fire long enough to cause the British to retreat to Savannah due to their fear of being cut off from relief by the First French fleet action. Muhlenburg’s VA German regiment was denied food, munitions, clothing, medicine, and any reenforcements while they were dying in droves. Muhlenburg left his troops under Colonel Abraham Bowman and returned to chastise Washington and the Continental Congress for this treachery and became Washington’s enemy. He was ordered to form another VA German Regiment which Muhlenburg agreed to only if the Regiment was to be located only in VA and Abraham Bowman’s men would be allowed to return to join this Regt.; Washington never provided any real support to this regiment even though it was critical to the penning up of Cornwallis until the French General Rochembeau brought his 1800 wagon loads of flour, bakery ovens, gold, munitions, weapons, and even clothing cloth down from RI to Washington’s headquarters for what Washington was proposing as his losing attack against New York City. Upon arrival, Rochembeau changed the battle location with his famous words: I have the baking ovens and flour, the gold and silver, the troops and munitions, and the French Fleet that is due to arrive at the Chesapeake. If you do not take the Durham boats that you have gotten to attack NY City where you would be defeated by the British fleet, load them up with all the equipment and supplies intended for the NY City invasion and proceed with me to take Cornwallis, I will take my troops, my 1800 wagons of supplies and gold and silver and go meet the French Fleet to go back to France and let the British hang you. According to Pickering, Washington pitched a royal fit including throwing items. Hamilton then asked permission to go tell Lafayette and Muhlenburg that the reinforcements were combining along with the whole French Fleet to capture Cornwallis. When Washington told Wayne’s troops that they would be going south, they rebelled and I believe six Sergeants were executed followed by the Wayne troops being escorted by the French troops while Wayne’s troops carried weapons with no flints, powder and lead all the way to VA. Mind you all this took place after Washington had been headed off from going to visit Benedict Arnold two days before his scheduled arrival to return a day to have a strategy conference. Had Washington arrived on schedule the British Marines on the ship below West Point would have welcomed him to the now controlled by the British West Point. This interdiction could only have been attempted if the plan had not been made known to the French. This was an act by one of Washington’s selected Generals. This was also after Gates had willfully, intentionally directed the Southern Continental Army into a fatal trap in the swamp north of Camden after Gates had fed these starving troops molasses and grits which caused them great debilitation. The Hero Pulaski was left to die by the desertion of Gates on Gates’ race horse during the battle. When Major Davie arrested the lone rider on the road to Mecklenburg NC from Camden, Gates claimed he was heading to Hillsborough for reinforcements. He was then told this is not the road to Hillsborough and no Southern Militiaman would ever want to serve under him again. Then we have General Benjamin Lincoln still in command of the defense of Charleston SC in May 1780. He has over two years of munitions and other necessities to hold the town especially if he were to order the civilians in the town to leave. Instead he surrenders on May 12 with the 4000 French soldiers and their French ships only a week away from arriving to trap both Clinton and Cornwallis in SC. Instead, these troops and their ships went on up to RI where they awaited another chance to end the war. In the meantime, various Patriot and Foreign troops were waging war against the British while Washington and his troops guarded against Clinton leaving NY City. The victory at Kings Mtn had no Continental dollars, guns, troops, or even powder supplied by any Continental entity. The 1200 new Brown Betsy muskets captured at Kings Mtn provided improved weaponry for the Southern Militias at Cowpens who had Daniel Morgan and his Virginians along with Lees dedicated calvary survivors from the Charleston surrender disaster along with the Baron De Glaubeck calvary. Incidentally, captured with Tarleton’s baggage, gold, wagons and blacksmith forge was a note detailing where Morgan was heading when Morgan was leaving Greene. This was a chilling notice that Morgan was being betrayed, probably by Greene. This information was sent to the President of the Continental Congress and Hero Daniel Morgan resigned to go back to VA at the start of the Guilford Courthouse treachery. Greene could have finished off Cornwallis had Greene responded to the pleas of Graham, Baron De Glaubeck, the Marquis de Breteyne, and others because Cornwallis was out of food, horses, munitions, and was down to under 2000 men. He had officers seeking food, had to leave his wounded behind, and his dead unburied. AS IT WAS, he barely made it to Wilmington NC to reach some safety and to be resupplied. It was after this resupply that Cornwallis made his unsuccessful plea for the Tory people to come join him with their arms and TEN DAYS FOOD SUPPLY. He hoped to gain supplies from the Patriots in VA at Richmond and Charlottesville which supplies were taken away before the British arrived. Greene lost the VA and NC Militia after the Guilford Courthouse battle and was allowed to do his seeking of wealth battles in or near SC for the rest of the war. The two cannons and 100 fine calvary horses taken at Cowpens along with 700 more muskets, a lot of swords and horse tack were invaluable in the establishment of the NC State Militia Calvary and Daniel Morgan’s men having calvary horses. While all of this was going on, the President of the Continental Congress is made Ambassador to Brussels, put on a ship which the British immediately captured to put the betrayed former President of the Continental Congress in the Tower of London. How can anyone say that the so called leaders were trying to win? At Yorktown, the French had those 4000 soldiers plus all the Marines and sailors of the massive French Fleet which brought the big siege guns and more gold; the Southern Militias and a few foreign mercenaries with Lafayette along with General VA German Regiment numbered less than 3000 counting the men who had been chasing Cornwallis since the Battle of Guilford Courthouse; and poor George Washington had less than 2500 men including Wayne’s mutinous Pennsylvanians. So who won the war for the Patriots. Tarleton did not surrender to the Continental Army; it was to the foreign and Southern Militia calvary. The pontoon bridge across the river to escape from Yorktown was blown up by the French Marines, not George Washington’s men. The two redoubts were captured not by George Washington’s men but one was by the French and one was by General Muhlenburg’s VA German Regiment men who Hamilton joined to claim he had led the attack which was not true. Yet who got pensions after the war; the Continentals and Washington and his officers; not the Militia men or their officers. It was only after former militia veteran Andrew Jackson became our President that any pension was awarded to militia men but only if they were still alive. Many were already dead including my Martin Trapp, Colonel Hambright, Captain Peter Little, the widow of Captain Daniel Little, Daniel George Bowman, George Sigmon/Siegmann, etc. Even then some benefits were falsely denied. We do have great evidence of the criminality of several of George Washington’s Generals including one criminal complaint by a Mr. Banks relative to the murder and defrauding of the estate of his brother who had been supplying General Greene. This letter was mailed to the Congress demanding an investigation but was denied acceptance. Hamilton and others were involved in the Scioto Land scandal in which 6.5 million acres of land in SE and eastern OH were bought very cheaply at 25 cents per acre funded by a loan from Hamilton’s bank which was set up with money paid into a water supply company established to bring water to NY City which never got started while Hamilton was alive. His death at the hands of Aaron Burr may not have been due to Burr’s treason is trying to set up a new nation west of the Appalachians as to the repercussions from the bad debt to Hamilton’s bank spelling the beans on the land acquisition. BTW, George Washington was buying up Continental Soldier land grants for pennies to the dollar and obtaining land near this Scioto land purchase that included land near or in Cincinnati OH;

    You can say that refusing to fight even when winning was certain was good generalship. I strongly disagree. Remember that we still had to fight England again in 1812, almost had to fight the French before that because we reneged on the debt we owed France, and had to fight the Barbary Pirates that had been sold ships to attack us by the British. No, what won the war was the joining of the Spanish, Netherlands, and even Germany in the opposition to the British war effort. It did not help the British that King George was a German Duke of Hannover/Lunenburg as well as King of England. He wanted to continue to be a
    German Lutheran Duke of Hannover.

    • John McGinley says:

      USE PARAGRAPHS!!!!!!

    • Peter Proctor says:

      Further to Janes message, with all those comments re English an Welsh Ancestors, And Irish and Scots Ancestors too. I would think that in reality, you could also claim to be British.

    • T. M. Davis says:

      I think you need to write a book, or at least a dissertation.

  22. Carl Nollen says:

    I would like to hear from any one related to, or has knowledge of the Tuttle Loyalists who went to Quebec & then Ontario

    • Debby Brown-Warren says:

      Hi Carl
      Are you aware that TUTTLE family of NY also settled in Nova Scotia after Revolution. I have access to some of that information. We actually have a funeral home bearing that family name in our community.
      You can reach me through Facebook message at Debby Brown-Warren. I am a Loyalist descendant. My BROWN family lived in Westchester NY. Their home was confiscated by the Americans. They were evacuated from NY with commanding officer Colonel James Delancy in 1783

    • Carl Nollen says:

      There seem to thousands of Tuttles! The man I am after is Thomas F. Tuttle (1807-1892) born in Quebec & lived in Iowa & Illinois, abt. 1840++. He & his wife Nancy lived alone in the wilderness at Pella Iowa & their home, a log cabin in Pella, is the oldest house in town & a historical monument. They had no children! I have had extensive research done in Ontario & Quebec with no results. I appeciate your writing. Thanks a lot,

  23. Dean W. Gudgel says:

    After peace was declared and the Revolutionary War was over and the
    Patriots were victorious, many known Loyalists
    had their property seized and/or were forced
    To flee to Canada or elsewhere abroad. Many Canadians today are descendants of such Loyalists. See the U.S. Supreme Court case :Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee.

    • Gwyn Norman Crump Sr. says:

      You are absolutely correct. The Treaty of Paris terms were not honored for a few years after the war was over.

    • Dean W. Gudgel says:

      This unfortunately a side of our history of the American Revolution that isnot taught in our elementary and secondary schools in the US for the most part.

  24. Jimmy Thomason says:

    My 5th great grandfather was Martin Dial sr. of Lauren’s District, South Carolina. He was a patriot who served in the So.Car. Militia under Captain John Ridgeway. He had said that all of his brothers were Tories. Martin was with Capt. Ridgeway when “Bloody Bill” Cunningham’s Tory gang attacked them on the Saluda River, now known as the “Cane break Massacre”. Martin was one of only a few that escaped. Martin was captured twice. The second time he was captured, he was facing execution but was saved by his brother (it is said) Hastings Dial, who was a Tory serving in the British Army as a Colonel.

  25. My 4th great grandfather is Aaron Doan. He and his brothers were of the loyalist Doan gang of Bucks county, Pa. The eldest brother Moses was a spy for the British and he was the one that gave Colonel Rall of the Hessian army a note that Washington was to cross the Delaware! They were exiled to Welland Ontario, Canada.

  26. Bill steeves says:

    Ben Franklin came to Saint John NB in 1783 along with thousands of other loyalists.

  27. Louise Smith says:

    I taught US History, but almost none of this was in our textbooks.
    Many thanks for this added information!

  28. Marilyn Long says:

    Is anyone reading this descended from the Cape Anne Association Moores who went to New Brunswick in Canada in 1785 and founded the town of Moores Mills?

  29. Lynnie Tracy says:

    I am a gggggrad of a grasper raider and many patriots. My hubby is a gggggrand of Andrew Phair who served under Benedict Arnold. I have traced both men to the same battle on opposing sides. . I often wonder what they would think of our marriage. Genealogy and history is a complicated tapestry. I am addicted!

  30. Dave Dobson says:

    My wifes Line includes the surnames of Fitzpatrick, Warner , and Presley, all UEL

  31. Joseph Freeman says:

    My patriot my grt grt grt grt grandfather Dr Nathaniel Freeman, was appointed in a commision to investigate and expose tories in Sandwich Mass.he was also Col in 1st reg of Barnstable county Mass. militia 1775.

  32. Jane Cooper Williams Kirby says:

    I totally agree with you on the kneeling T.M…Well said!!

  33. VB Gallo says:

    To TM : how do you know the majority of those making comments are of white ancestry? Not everyone of African ancestry feels this way – so many of us are now of a mixed heritage. Just asking…

  34. Ann says:

    Hi, I have an ancestor John Rogers who was pressed ganged into the Marquis of Cornwallis army and sent to he Americas to fight. He must have been only 21yrs old at the time. John lost an arm while at the war, he was a day patient at the Pensioners Hospital London for a while. Eventually he and 2 others were arrested for highway robbery (trying to survive). The other two were hanged but John was sentenced to life in the Colony. He spent 2 years on a dreadful filthy prison followed by 3.5 years on a filthy rotten hulk. On 19 January 1790 the Neptune with John aboard, finally departed England.

  35. Marie Chambers says:

    I have 6 great-grandfathers who fought in the Revolution. What was especially interesting to me was the short periods of time they served. Months here and there in various locations in Massachusetts, RI and Connecticut. Most were farmers and were home during planting and harvesting, which meant the fought during the harsher weather months. They and their spouses struggled to be compensated for their time in the war, never mind for inuries of both body and mind. They were descendants of the earliest Americans, coming here during the Great Migration, promised a better way of life. They came to think of this country as there own and too much time had past to feel any allegiance. I wonder of the loyalists were newer immigrants, who still felt strong attachment to the homeland, like many do coming to a new country. That wold interest me if anyone has information about them.

    • T. M. Davis says:

      More than likely, many of your ancestors were militia called up only when there was a threat to their area. Usually, only those in the Continental Army served a year or more, and even those in the army in the first year or so were relatively short enlistments. Washington had to plead with several regiments in December 1776 to stay in a little longer, thus leading to his attacks at Trenton and Princeton that week after Christmas prior to the expiration of their enlistments.

      In the War of 1812, my ggg-grandfather Stephen Pettis Jr. was a captain with the 4th Vermont for only about 4 months before his release. His wife had died in childbirth with their 9th child, who also died, leaving a large family without a parent at home. He went on to have three more wives, only the last outliving him (by 30+ years) and a total of 21 children.

      Even in the Civil War many of the early regiments were 90-day or one-year enlistments before 3-year became the normal for Union troops.

    • marie chambers says:

      I love that genealogy has become so popular. We have an intimate look at history not learned in schools. The letters written for war pensions really give good insight. I have a letter written by Thomas Hoskins in 1838 found in U.S., Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application File. He pleaded for his pension but was unable to provide birth information satisfactory to prove his assertion that he served when he was 17, in Rochester, Ma under Captain Joseph Parker’s company, Col. Whites Regiment in 1775. His pension was rejected. They certainly kept poor records for the militia. The letters give us an idea of what their struggles were.

    • As far as I know, a Loyalist is a law and order person who prefers to defend a legitimate governement in place who assures him that things runs well for him. And not make an insurection because taxes are too highers.
      But, in the case my Loyalist ancestor, Samuel Perry, all his large family, living in Perry’s Hill, at Palmertown (Wilton), in the northern part of NY State, right on the front line, the problem was, he was a Quaker.
      Maybe Quakers were pacifists, but the events of their life proove that it was not the case for the Perrys.
      They’re ancestors were Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. Soon, the Quakers separeted themselves from them, like George Allen’s children, because they were pacifists, but much because they were more liberals and more open minded or practiced their religion in a diffent way. And at this time, a slightest difference could make all the difference.
      They have been persecuted, lynched, flogged, saw their lands and goods confiscated by local autorities. Put in trial all the time. Most of the young girls burned in Salem were Quakers. They leaved the Massassuchets colony between 1700 and 1770 to go to northern part of NY State after the so-called ‘French-Indian’ war, or Seven-Year War, and found peace and prosperity in Albany County, near Saratoga… the reasons so many inhabitans were Loyalists there… they has so many things to loose… including their liberty. And their security.
      So, we could say, like Indians, they were looking for the protection of the Crown, a strong government, who didn’t persecute them… Rowland Perry was put in jail just because he refused to live the city when general Burgoyne passed by.
      In addition, the British government used Canada as a base to enter (and retreat) from the Insurgent’s (Patriot’s) territory. The Tories were on the front line. And the government promised lands, money and EVERYTHING to Mohawks and colonists who will join them.Who could only guessed they will loose?
      Finally, thirty membres of the Perry’s family escaped to Canada by the Hudson, Lake George, Richelieu river and the St. Laurent river. In Canada, they will know the misery, beeing parked in refugees camps at Sorel, Camp Machiche, Montreal, where they died from feast, thirst, cold and thyphus, etc. Most of them didn’t received their lands (not enoug for eveybody) and returned to the new Unites States after the amnesty law. Withour retrocession, of course.
      So, it was the newcomer who felt they owned nothing to the British Governement and feeled free to prefer a new king of government, which action I admired so much.
      But, at this time, one third of the colonists would’nt predict a brilliant future to this disorganised Insurgents and their so-called army (George Washington’ quotation). They won thanks to the help of France, who furnished arms, munitions, cloothes, army, fleet, secret service services (who send Lafayette); they encouraged, informed and sustained the Insurgents and, finally, all Court of France was in America. They were organised.
      Why this choice? Most of the members of the French Secret Service were officiers during the Seven-Years War, were they have been baffled by three Britihs Armies, and they simply wished to take their revenge after that humiliation…
      The King of France was opposite to help a colony which fighted against it’s legitimate king, but we know how he was weak. He had been baffled by his own secret service. And the enthousiasm of a great part of French population, acquired to new ideas… Dangerous situation…
      Being never reimboursed, the French State made bankcrupty, had his own Revolution, and the King died on the gallows… He knew it was not a good idea!
      If you want to know if your ancestors were Loyalists, I suggest deeply you consult the following sources.
      Mains ources I found during my years of researches :
      BAC/LAC (Library and Archives Canada – on line) to find unnumerous petitions from Loyalists to Governors of Canada about promises, prooves of their life and goods confiscated or lost in the Thirteen Colonies.
      More, the famous book : Minutes of the Commissioners for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies in the State of New york, Albany County sessions, 1778-1781. There’s Minutes like that for almost each of the colonies.
      Strange : the Loyalists were put in trial by those who opposed to the legitimate government… A good joke.
      And, as a matter of excuse for my crual revelations, I’m not an american, I’m a French-Canadian, and, if I had been there, I would have choose the side of the Insurgents!

  36. Gary DuBose says:

    I had an ancestor, Peter Gaillard, in an interesting position. His father was a Tory, but he wanted to be on the Patriot side. He actually fought in at least one action in lower South Carolina on the Loyalist side, but then his father passed away. He wrote a letter to Francis Marion to ask if he would be willing to have him if he switched sides. Marion, whom he had known personally prior to the outbreak of the war, was more than happy to receive him. He therefore ended up fighting on both sides.

    • T. M. Davis says:

      Not that uncommon. One of my 6th great-uncles and his sons fought with the Patriots a couple years in the Schoharie Valley region of upstate New York, but in about 1777 he moved the family to Canada and the boys fought with Butler’s Rangers, who terrorized the frontier. His brothers, my 5th great-grandfather and another brother, my 4th great-grandfather (yes, both were grandfathers of mine as the lines later came back together), and their families stayed in Schoharie and fought with the patriots.

  37. david Leal says:

    England did not become the richest and most powerful nation until the middle 1800s. The Parliament Bldg. and “Big Ben ” were not constructed until the late 1800s. In 1776 England had the 13 colonies and vacant Australia. After loosing America it began exporting prisoners, etc., to Australia. The fact that 13 poor and sparsely populated colonies could defeat it is proof at how week England was at this time. By the mid 1800s England had gained control of India and had established a presence in Eat Asia.

    Another correction is that, regardless of the Paris Peace Treaty, the properties of the loyalist were confiscated after winning independence.

  38. My ancestors either:(A). sacrificed everything out of loyalty to George3 or (B) bet on the wrong horse! I am a proud Canadian and do not think that the USA is without it’s faults -but it has done pretty damn well over the years -and until recently at least has been a good friend to Canada. The funny thing is that many in both the U.S. and Canada have never studied the American Revolution and do not have much understanding of what actually transpired. There were faults on both sides -but we have become 2 of the best countries in the world. Good for both of us! Thank heavens the French/Indian wars brought my ancestors from Britain to North America!

  39. I was raised in Montana – one spring when we were driving cattle to the upper place my Dad said to me – “I must tell you something embarrassing about our family. My family – the Spragg family were Tories.” Seems Edward Spragg married into a tory family – He was called Captain by the locals – but of course not by the English military. He and his family also went to Canada – received 2,000 acres of land. However my great grandfather for reasons I don’t know ( he did get a girl pregnant in Canada – may have had something to do with the why) landed in Iowa around the 1870’s for land. Must have been several that came at the same time as I decided to see that area – never saw a graveyard with so many Spragg names. His name was Ezra Spragg. He later moved to Montana and farmed around Denton Mt.

  40. C A Olson says:

    To John Benedict
    Try Family Search. I find that Ancestry has undocumented information that is simply added to the next seeker. Fold3 is “the source” for anything military.They have local directories, census records and the like. Highly recommend both of these sources.
    Start with what you know. Find a “Family Chart” on line… for free. This is a blank form on which you record family information. Give the charts to family members and then work from there. The Census records from 1790 to 1940 are available.
    Find a grave is also a good source.
    If your family has been in SD since the late 1800’s-early 1900’s, there are most likely land records that you can check.
    As a member of the DAR…. finding ancestor’s is our “thing!”
    If you would like some help on the search, contact DAR and ask to be contact with Amos Kendall Chapter, Oswego IL. I’ll get the message and see what we can do. Best of luck on your search.

    • HELENE COTE says:

      It’s difficult to find ONE good source. So I used all sources I could find. Example: I access to the military files of three ancestors on Fold3, my two grand-fathers (WWI) and my great-great father (WWI). Regarding my father (WWII), it’s was impossible, I must wait for twenty years.
      I realised that something was wrong. Too many mistakes.
      Answer : those records are in complete desorder; they mixed data of at least three differents persons in the same file regarding both grand-fathers, they added or skip pages (concerning someone else).
      So, the solution was to keep in mind the ‘numéro matricule’, the number attribuated to each solider, seen at the bottom of each page.
      Incredible. Disgusting.
      That’s why I cancelled my subscription to Fold3.
      So, I consulted canadian archives. I found same files, freely, I was full of hope. Guess what? They mixed datas of different soldiers too.
      So, follow the number…

  41. Diana Hyneman says:

    My Esselstein (Asselstine) relatives were Loyalists. Many interesting stories I have read.

  42. John Vreeland says:

    Going to a XCountry meet this past week or so ago for my son, I traveled the paths, now small roads that Brandt used to “ escape” his Orange County militia chasers. When chased enough, and not really escaping, he sprung the ambush that killed most, almost all of the militia at the Battle of Minisink near Pirt Jervis New York.

  43. Alice Jones says:

    I am amazed by the comparison to those who kneel in protest. Apparently when white men felt they were not being treated fairly by those in power, they took things to another level and committed treason against the government. Black people have to have permission from those who do not suffer these injustices to simply take a knee. Only in America.

    • Larry Howe says:

      I don’t think that the comments made by Alice Jones belongs on this site, Blog. fold 3.
      We are blogging 2 different wars in different times.

  44. FredFons says:

    My Pawling ancestor’s family from Ulster County NY and Montgomery Co Pa had 17 members or spouces of members in Line regiments, militia. One Levy Pawling was a Col. of 3rd Reiment of Levies. Two brothers from Pa went to Canada and joined Butler’s Rangers. One was a captain. A nephew of the Pawling brothers above was on the prison ship Archer after capture at Ft. Montgomery. It was truly a civil war.
    I don’t believe the Pawling brothers were in the company headed by Butler’s brother that was involved in the massacre. Nothwithstanding Butlers rangers were a tough dedicated group.

  45. My husband 5 th G.G. is Robert Graham Empire Loyast who served with Lt. Micheal Grass. I know he lived in N.Y at the time. But I can’t seem to get validation of weather he came from Scotland as his Kingston census says Scottish. I’ve tried to match him to Massachusetts and Pennsylvania but the d.o.b doesn’t match.. Where can I find recruitment Militia info in N.Y?? I have only found one paper with just his name..and rank. I you can help would be appreciated. Other trees just copied my non validated info to Scotland and can’t be relied on..