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America’s First Military Draft Begins: April 16, 1862

Application for Discharge on Account of Having Furnished a Substitute
On April 16, 1862, the Confederacy—in need of troops to fight in its armies—passed the Conscription Act, the first effective general military draft in America.

When the Civil War began, the Confederacy had set its volunteers’ terms of enlistment for one year. However, as the year mark neared, it became obvious that the war would last for much longer and that the Confederate armies would need more soldiers. So in April 1862, the Confederacy passed the Conscription Act, which drafted healthy white men ages 18 to 35 for three-year terms (later acts would extend the ages first to 18 to 45, and later to 17 to 50). The Confederate Congress also extended the terms of those already serving under one-year enlistments for another two years (though the soldiers would effectively serve for the duration of the war).

The act allowed those drafted to find substitutes to serve in their place (though this would be discontinued in December 1863) and exempted men serving in occupations deemed critical to the war effort or civilian life. In the fall of 1862, exemptions were also extended to those who owned or oversaw 20 or more slaves.

The Federal government instituted its own draft a year later, in March 1863. The Enrollment Act called on men ages 20 to 45 to register for the draft. As in the South, substitutes were allowed, or else men could pay a $300 commutation fee (though commutation fees were eventually banned in 1864). Like the Confederacy, the Federal government allowed some exemptions for certain occupations, physical disability, and religious conscientious objectors.

Conscription was partially meant to encourage voluntary enlistment, as those who joined as volunteers were eligible to receive bounty money (enlistment bonuses) from states, counties, cities, and the federal government—in some cases totaling a sum upwards of $1,000. However, these bounties created the problem of bounty jumping, wherein men would volunteer, collect the money, then desert and re-enlist elsewhere and collect that money as well.

Group of men accused of inciting and participating in a draft riot

In the Union and Confederacy, conscription was generally a disproportional burden on the poor, since they were unable to pay for a substitute or a commutation fee. But while the draft was hated in both the North and the South, it was only in the North that it sparked riots, the most violent of which killed more than a hundred people—many of them black—in New York City in July 1863.

Do you know if any of your ancestors were conscripted during the Civil War? Tell us about them! Or start a search on Fold3 to find more information on this topic.

105 Comments

  1. I was told years ago by his granddaughter that one of my ancestors was a Conscription Officer for the Confederacy during the Civil War. But I have never found a record of his service. Where might I find such a record?

    • on Fold3.com

    • If you know the name, you might find it here, though, as with all things Confederate, you might not.

      https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/soldiers-and-sailors-database.htm

    • Give me his name, and any personal information such as age, location, etc.

      I have access to most Confederate and some Federal records.

    • Thanks. His name was Thomas Benton Simpson, born 19 February 1842 in Sumner County, Tennessee. He lived in Sumner County when the war started, although he may have been attending medical school in Louisville, Kentucky at the time. According to my great-aunt (his granddaughter) he was a “conscription officer” during the war. She described that as someone who recruited soldiers. The family claimed he was a lieutenant, but I know rank is often exaggerated. I’d just like to prove whether he did or did not serve. I’ve checked Fold3, but did not find a match that seems likely. Thanks for your offer of help.

    • I have not been able to locate any military record of his service as a soldier. The following was found at Ancestry.com

      Martha (Johnson) Simpson was the mother of four children by Enoch Simpson: Thomas Benton, Penelope Elviria, Magdalena Frances and Joseph Roger Simpson. These children were born and raised in the Simpson House on Rock Bridge Road in Sumner County.

      Thomas Benton Simpson, son of Enoch and Martha Jane (Johnson) Simpson, b. 19 Feb. 1842 Sumner Co., TN. D. 1 Sept. 1922 Sumner Co., Tenn. Married 23 Aug. 1863 Sumner Co., TN to Frances Logan Graves, daughter of Benjamin F. and Harriet C. (Young) Graves, b. 20 Oct. 1840 Sumner Co., TN. D. 8 June 1896 Sumner Co., Tenn. Both buried Simpson Family Cem., Sumner Co., TN. Children:
      7.1. Nora Simpson, b. 28 June 1864 Sumner Co., TN. D. 17 July 1866.

    • Thanks for trying. Either the story of his service is in error, or the record is somehow lost. It seems unlikely, but I suppose he could have served in the Union Army. I appreciate your efforts.

    • Your ancestor still might have been in Confederate service. There had to be some kind of basis for your family’s passed down history. The records are only about 80% complete, and less than that for artillery for whatever reason. I have a CD of Ms. Henderson’s volumes of Confederate soldiers and one from Broadfoot publishing of Confederates and Union soldiers. I couldn’t find an ancestor who was in artillery on either of them. I knew he had served because I had a copy of a newspaper article about his unit and which included the fact that he was killed in the battle of Jonesboro (Georgia), I had seen a copy of a furlough he had, fortunately for me, since his only child, my great grandfather, was born about nine months later, and I have letters from and to his wife from the time he started training in Savannah, Georgia until about a year before he was killed. When I learned of fold3 I searched for him and there I found his service records and a history of his unit. In the roster of the company he was listed as James Wood, but his name was Jonas Wood. That kind of spelling error was typical, as everything was hand written. You, or someone in your family, might still find information on your ancestor and it might be from a newspaper article from the time or from some other source that hasn’t been obvious yet. In the meantime, don’t give up hope of finding information and hold him in your heart! Best of luck!

    • Thanks for the encouragement and tips. I’ve actually been looking for his service record for more than 40 years. Both my grandfather and his sister told me of his service. They were his grandchildren, and knew him well. My grandfather spent a great deal of time with him before he died in 1922 when my grandfather was about about 15. HIs sister was 2 years older. So they were plenty old enough to understand what he told them. Since he was supposed to have been in medical school in Kentucky when the war started, serving from there also seems like a possibility. My great-aunt made it pretty clear that she understood that he was a conscription officer. I can still see her explaining that to me when I was a teenager. She said he went around the countryside finding eligible young men who should be in the army, and recruited them. She did not say if that was by persuasion, or by coercion.

    • He very well have been a Conscripting Officer, I’m not sure they were commissioned officers, but could have been government employees.

    • Go to Confederate records and look up his name – if he served, he will be listed.

    • To find all of my answers. I sent in a form to National Archives, Civil War Department. Oh my! Did I ever receive all the paperwork from them pertaining to my 1st cousin 2 times removed. Actually, I got two boxes. Paid for the 1st box. Then a couple of weeks later received the 2nd box. Now, I know all about my cousin and his wife. Seems the two of them had been married before. Also it did answer my question. Yes, my cousin Samuel Foudray was a POW at Andersonville, Ga.

      Erick, if you have the time and get the chance, you might also want to contact the local Historical Department at the local library. Or contact the State Genealogy Department. Also, I just found out, and I never heard of the magazine called Civil War. You can goggle that too,

    • HELLO, JUST WAS READING THAUGHT I’D TRY TO HELP. I’M DOING SOME RESEARCH ON MY FAMILY, SO I KNOW IT TAKES PATIENCE RESEARCH. TRY STARTING WITH ANCESTRY.COM YOU WILL BE ASKED TO TYPE SOME INFO. IT’S FREE FOR TWO WEEKS, BUT IF YOU REALLY WANT TO FIND OUT IT’S WORTH IT.

    • State records for the Confederate state he served. North Carolina, by far, has best state records of the Confederacy.

  2. Through Fold 3, I found records for my great-great grandfather’s service in the USCT. Dudley DePrad was 55 years old when he signed up. On his enlistment document is written either “Reputed Owner or “Reported Owner with the name William Dunlap. Was this because my gg-grandfather was serving as a substitute, or just a note by an especially astute registrar? I have not seen anything about an”owner” noted on any other ancestors’ enlistment documents.

    Thank you
    Cleo Wilson

    • Sounds to me like the person on that document was a slave. That’s why he would have had an owner. Some owners in the South took their slaves to war with them. Later in the War, the North promised freedom to male slaves of fighting age In the border states, If they signed up to fight in the war. Many left their owners to sign up for the army, even though their owners objected. The families left behind often suffered backlash actions from their owners because of it. A good resource for this is the book Families & Freedom by Ira Berlin & Leslie S. Rowland. It contains a lot of first=hand accounts of what was going on at the time.

    • I take it he was slave and the mentioned gent his owner.

  3. Albert Lovelace of Rutherford County was conscripted into the Confederate army and was captured in Virginia. He ended up as a “Galvanized Yankee” fighting for the Union to escape the horrible conditions in the POW camp at Point Lookout, MD. His records, for both the Confederate and Union armies, were found on Fold3. He was in Kansas at the end of the war, and never made it home to his wife, who had by that time remarried to his first cousin, I suppose presuming Albert was dead. Albert made it as far as Alabama, where he died.

  4. Why have I read in contemporary history books recounting the history of the American Revolution, wherein is written many times, the expression “several hundred men were drafted.” These histories were not written by some “johnny come lately,” these histories were written by leading and qualified authors.”

    • You can not think of todays population numbers when you think of our Revolutionary War communities. I had relatives in early Maryland. Revolutionary War was well documented and discovered by many Historical Society groups in recent years. I scanned many sites and archives to read of the Elder men and women around Frederick County MD. The population was sparse and likely was hard to find 100 men to fight. But, the word hundred appears several times in the accounts of that era. Below is a clip taken from Emmitsburg Historical Society, The Forgotten Patriots of the Toms Creek Hundred, by John Miller. Notice mention of 2 companies combined provided 100 men.

      The Game Cock Company proved their bravery at White Plains New York during Washington’s retreat. The second company was under the command of Captain William Shields, who also participated in the battle of White Plains. These companies together produced more than a hundred soldiers that were ready for military use.

      There were two other companies raised in Frederick County outside of Toms’ Creek Hundred, Captain Jacob Ambrose’s company of militia and also Captain Benjamin Ogle’s company of militia. These two companies also raised more than a hundred soldiers for military duty. These two companies also saw military service at White Plains, New York. This was a disastrous defeat for the Continental Army; however, General Washington managed to save his army from defeat with a rear guard battle that consisted of the Maryland Troops.

      As General George Washington rode into the area, members of the Maryland Militia flocked to join the Continental Army as they marched for New York. At the Battle of White Plains the Maryland 400 was given credit for turning the tide of the War. General Washington even complimented these troops from Tom’s Creek Hundred who were from Frederick County at Tera Ruba, saying that they hold a part of his heart. General Washington made this statement at the home of a wealthy family known as the Keys.

    • The following explanation is found under “Conscription” in Wikipedia– “During the American Revolutionary War, the states sometimes drafted men for militia duty or to fill state Continental Army units, but the central government did not have the authority to conscript except for purposes of naval impressment. President James Madison and his Secretary of War James Monroe unsuccessfully attempted to create a national draft of 40,000 men during the War of 1812.”

  5. Why have I read in contemporary history books recounting the history of the American Revolution, wherein is written many times, the expression “several hundred men were drafted.” These histories were not written by some “johnny come lately,” these histories were written by leading and qualified authors.”

    Another point, why do you head your story about the Confederate Draft with a photograph of bunch of Damn Yankees? Those waste coats are not gray, they are blue!

    • I HOPE YOU ARE SPEAKING OF “THE WAR OF NORTHERN AGGRESSION” THERE IS NOTHING “CIVIL” ABOUT ANY WAR…

  6. Russ Zears is correct. There was never a civil war here. A civil war is when a portion of the population of a country take up arms against their own government. The people of the South exercised their constitutional right to secede and form their own government. The forefathers had realized that in a country so vast and with such a diversity of people, the central government might become oppressive toward certain of the population. Therefore, they provided for the right of a state or group of states to secede an d form their own government. The agrarian South was creating wealth and the industrial North was unfairly taxing the South to fund the development of their industries. The South objected to this and exercised thier right to secede. Abraham Lincoln had told the South that if the South would stay in the Union he would guarantee that slavery would remain forever. However, it was nor slavery, but economic oppression in the form of excessive taxes that led to secession. When the South exercised its right to secede, Lincoln had his army invade the South. Union General William Tecumseh Sherman used tactics he had learned while fighting native Indians in Florida of invading civilian viliages, killing women and children and destroying livestock and foodstuffs to defeat the South.

    Yes, the South used slaves (bought from the Yankees) in their agrarian economy. The North used cheap labor of immigrants from some of the poorer countries in their factories. These people lived in conditions as bad or worse than those of the slaves in the South and stayed in debt to the “company store”. They had no chance of economic advancement.

    • Care to back up that assertion with a citation of Article and section? There is no provision in the Constitution for states departing the Union.
      I will agree that the day to day working conditions of many (but not all) slaves were not significantly different from laborers in the North. However, the exceptions are extreme. A couple of North Carolina plantations had the custom of castrating all male slaves, whether bought elsewhere or born to a woman on the plantation.
      A major fear of slaves on all plantations, even those with decent masters, was that someday families would be split up by sale. If a good master got into debt or died without a competent heir, this was likely.

    • Etheredge,

      Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest massacred black Union prisoners at Ft. Pillow and Confederate American Indian troops under Brigadier Gen. Albert Pike, and ultimately under Major Gen. Earl Van Dorn scalped, slaughtered and mutilated wounded Union troops at Pea Ridge, AR. War is hell.

    • Your last paragraph is correct, sir, however I take issue with the South being unfairly taxed to support growth of Northern industry. The South objected to any taxes at all, and they benefited greatly from Northern industry because, as you say, theirs was an agrarian economy and they had great need for things manufactured in the North.

      There is nothing in the constitution that guaranteed the Southern states could secede from the Union.

      Your love of the South has obviously given you a myopic view of the history of the time.

    • …This policy allowed the New England Industrialist to sell his goods to Americans at a cheaper price than England. (Ref 10; Ref 13; Ref 24; Ref 18) Even in the good times, vast amounts of Southern wealth were literally being stolen by the already very wealthy Northern and New England Industrialist. This deed was easily accomplished by Northerners, and some Englishmen acting as commodity brokers who arranged credit, insurance, warehousing, and shipping. This activity reduced the income of cotton and other products by up to 20 per cent. (Ref 12, Pg 92) Since the North virtually controlled all aspect s of shipping and finance, very little of these earnings went to Southerners. This process was known as “factoring” which is described as a commission merchant who acted as agent for planters. The system required the delivery of crops to the factor long before the actual sale. The factor would advance a loan at 8-12 per cent interest pending actual sale. I am sure to minimize the risk, the loan was heavily discounted from the anticipated sale price. Usually a contract to sell an entire crop was made before the harvest with a heavy penalty against the farmer for failure to deliver the required amount. The system tended to reduce the risk of the factor financing and shift it entirely to the farmer. The farmer, in good times or bad times, could easily find himself in a downward spiral of indebtedness because he must also refund part his advance if prices were unfavorable to his contract. (Ref 25, Pg88) These 14 years of economic rape of the South’s wealth reduced the Southern economy to the point of collapse.

    • Your quote of a later post does not contradict what I said. Facts are facts. The South depended on the North for manufactured goods. This fact is indisputable because as was pointed out in the post I was commenting on, the South was a largely Agrarian economy.

      That is why they had to seek manufactured goods overseas during the war, and the North tried to block those shipments.

    • That does not contradict what I said. The South was dependent on the North for manufactured goods prior to the war. That is why they turned to foreign nations for manufactured goods during the war, and the North tried to stop those shipments.

    • That research contradicts everything you said. The South was being raked over the coals, from the illegal importation of African slaves by Northern slave ships (Boston and New York were the largest) to buying a shirt made in New England. Suggest you research the English inherited ” factoring ” marketing system.

    • That’s right, run on along little Yankee boy.. Great debate gentleman, I hope to see more people like you in the near future..

  7. Love all the comments and the history lessons everyone.

  8. My ancestor, Martin E. L. Blackburn, enlisted (either September or November, 1862) in the Georgia “Mercer Partisans”. This unit ultimately became part of the 7th Georgia Cavalry. He was captured at the Battle of Trevilian Station, VA on June 11, 1864 and was initially sent to the POW camp at Point Lookout. He was transferred to the Union Prison Camp at Elmira, NY in July, 1864. He died at Elmira on November 3, 1864, leaving behind a wife and three daughters in Ware Co., GA. He is buried at the camp cemetery in Elmira.

    This info. was gathered from a number of sources, with much detail coming from Fold3

  9. Mr Etheredge is correct. A process was known as “factoring” which is described as a commission merchant who acted as agent for planters. The system required the delivery of crops to the factor long before the actual sale. The factor would advance a loan at 8-12 per cent interest pending actual sale. I am sure to minimize the risk, the loan was heavily discounted from the anticipated sale price. Usually a contract to sell an entire crop was made before the harvest with a heavy penalty against the farmer for failure to deliver the required amount. The system tended to reduce the risk of the factor financing and shift it entirely to the farmer. The farmer, in good times or bad times, could easily find himself in a downward spiral of indebtedness because he must also refund part his advance if prices were unfavorable to his contract. (Ref 25, Pg88) These 14 years of economic rape of the South’s wealth reduced the Southern economy to the point of collapse.

  10. The account of my great grandfather, Daniel B. Dwiggins, Forsyth County, NC, (volunteered at age 17) is so similar to Greg Lovelace’s account of Albert Lovelace that I must comment. Both of the Confederacy; both captured in VA (Dwiggins in battle of Fishers Hill Sept 1864); both as prisoners at Point Lookout, MD; both were “Galvanized Yankees”; both passed through KS as Union soldiers (Dwiggins mustered out at Ft. Leavenworth, KS after serving at Ft. Randall, SD with the 4th US Volunteers). Both Greg Lovelace and I made our discoveries through Fold3. Wonder if Albert and Daniel crossed paths out there in the Dakota Territory? Daniel made it home to NC; I’m the one that ended up in Alabama!

    • William, it is indeed a small world. Albert was also mustered out at Leavenworth. He had also been stationed up in Minnesota, where he claimed in his pension application that he had “caught” rheumatism. He never got his pension, either. I said that he ended up in Alabama… There is a pension application for his “widow” there, but she never got it, either, because she couldn’t prove they had been married. They had at least two children together before he died. It was a sad story.

  11. My 2nd great grandfather, John Adam Snyder, was a Confederate conscript from Virginia. I found a record at the National Archive for Company E 25th Virginia Infantry. The record indicates he was part of Capt George H. Smith’s Co.(Pendleton Rifles). He was a private and it appears he was drafted in October, 1862. Unfortunately (or maybe he didn’t think so!) the record also says “Conscript deserted”.

  12. looking for William Washington Livingston, sergeant confederate, Georgia, Finches’s Calvary

    • W. W. Livingston, 4th Sergeant, Company G, 3rd Battalion Georgia Cavalry,* enlisted November 27, 1862 at Maynesville, Ga. for the war, last recorded present at the May/June, 1864 muster,** his file contains correspondence between the Adjutant General, War Department with Mrs. L. L. Woollen, 1040 N. Church Street, Cleveland, Tennessee, dated December 7, 1951 re William Washington Livingston

      * This company subsequently became Company E, 4th (Clinch’s) Georgia Cavalry

      ** Note, there are no subsequent muster rolls in the records for Company E, hence, we are unable to ascertain his subsequent service

      Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Georgia

  13. Can someone tell me what side of the war was Decatur County TN on. My mother was told by my grandmother that my ggrandfather, James Odom Wyatt was forcibly taken from his farm by soldiers along with their only horse, all their food and took him away.. He never returned to the farm. This story is true and has several repeats by those with Wyatt in their family tree. My mothe’s account is written in “Polk Couny AR History” published about 1988. I have a copy and you can also find a copy in the Polk County AR Library..

  14. Why no reply about conscription during the War for American Independence?

    • According to the attached website–it looks like it was both sides.

    • Please see my reply above–following the discourse on “hundred.” Merle K. Gatewood

    • Merle, you replied “The following explanation is found under “Conscription” in Wikipedia– “During the American Revolutionary War, the states sometimes drafted men for militia duty or to fill state Continental Army units, but the central government did not have the authority to conscript except for purposes of naval impressment. President James Madison and his Secretary of War James Monroe unsuccessfully attempted to create a national draft of 40,000 men during the War of 1812.”

      Firs,the Revolutionary militia ALWAYS drafted men. Second, the Continental Congress authorized those drafts, not the states, And, third, the title of your article is, “America’s First Military Draft Begins.” Given that wording, you are incorrect in attaching that title to a piece about the Civil War. America’s first military draft took place during the American Revolution. Unfortunately, it’s a common misconception that in the 1860’s, ouila!, all of a sudden conscription was introduced for the first time in the United States, another innovation spawned by the American Civil War, and that simply was not the case.

  15. Alexander O’Donnell, emigrated from Anglesboro, Co. Limerick, Irelamd with a younger brother Michael and a sister Mary, to Charleston, South Carolina, about 1850, got into the Civil War on the south side (the 1st Irish Volunteers) was promoted to 1st Sergeant, and Killed in action October 6 1863 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.(Source Military South Carolina). Both children were born to Alexander and Hanora in Charlestown County, South Carolina USA.

  16. My G-grandfather, George Minor Winn, of Virginia was conscripted in 1864 at camp Lee as a sergeant in the 5th Va Cavalry. He escaped Appomatox, survived the war, dying in 1906, is buried at Bybie Baptist Church, Fluvanna County VA.

    • George Minor Winn

      Residence was not listed; 32 years old.
      Enlisted on 2/20/1864 at Camp Lee, Richmond, VA as a 4th Sergt.
      On 2/20/1864 he was drafted into “G” Co. VA 5th Cavalry
      (date and method of discharge not given)
      (Surrendered at Appomattox Court House, VA on postwar roster)*
      He was listed as:
      * Conscripted 2/5/1864 Fluvanna County, VA
      * Transferred 2/5/1864 Camp Lee, Richmond, VA
      * On rolls 4/1/1864 (place not stated)
      * Issued clothing 7/27/1864 (place not stated)
      * Issued clothing 8/29/1864 (place not stated)
      * Commanding Company 9/30/1864 (place not stated)
      * Paroled 5/17/1865 Richmond, VA
      Other Information:
      born 6/11/1831
      died 10/22/1906 in Palmyra, VA
      Buried: Bybee’s Road Baptist Church, Fluvanna County, VA
      (Postwar occupation: Deputy Clerk of Courts, Fluvanna
      County, VA.)

      Sources used by Historical Data Systems, Inc.:
      – The Virginia Regimental Histories Series

      * However he is not recorded on the Appomattox Parole passes, see:
      https://www.nps.gov/apco/learn/historyculture/upload/Parole-Passes-W.pdf

      ……………….

      His file contains a reproduction of his parol certificate No. 2226, signed May 17, 1865 at the Federal Headquarters, Department of Virginia, at Richmond, Va.

      Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Virginia

  17. Three of my great-great uncles served in the Union army. One died in Andersonville having been captured in the Battle of Plymouth, NC in 1863. We believe another brother died in the Libby Prison (probably Belle Island) and the third was mustered out in New Jersey in July, 1865. My Great grandfather was excused from service due to Hyherhophy of heart. (excuse the spelling as I can not read the cursive writing on the Certificate of Non-Liability), to be given by the Board of Enrollment, Dated 28 March 1865. Description – Call Dec 19, 1864. The Certificate is signed by R W Richie, Surgeon of Board of Enrollment

    • Just browsing these postings…I believe your medical condition mentioned in your post may be “hypertrophy”.

  18. My great grandfather, William S. Wilkerson (b. 1/1/1845) served in McCord’s regiment of Texas Calvary C.S.A and later transferred to Black’s regiment. This is according to his statement made when his brother-in-law applied for a pension. I have not been able to find any information on his service. I have a picture of him in uniform and it looks like he may have been a quartermaster sergeant. I have heard of a story that he was guarding prisoners.
    I have also been told he served as a Texas Ranger before and after the war. He was under Captain William Kuffus (spelling is hard to read) Texas Volunteers and my mother said he always said he served in the Indian Wars. I have not found any information on this either.
    Any ideas?

  19. In my family, I have two brothers, David and Carlile Daniels, who served in the Confederacy but we have had no luck in finding records for either of them.
    They were both born and raised in Crittenden County, AR. David was born in March, 1841; Carlile in Jan, 1846-he toward the end of the war.
    I was hoping you may be able to help me?

    Thank you so much!
    Rochelle Butler

  20. According to a brief record I obtained from the National Archives, my great-great uncle Bernard Loughrey served as a 2nd lieutenant in Company K, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment from September 3, 1862 until being discharged on Janujary 17, 1863.

    The battle of Fredericksburg was fought in December, 1862, and I believe the 116th Pennsylvania participated in it as part of the Irish Brigade. That same month. the 116th was reduced from a regiment to only 4 battalions.

    Since my uncle was discharged barely a month after this battle, I’ve often wondered if he might have been wounded during the fighting. He filed for a military pension on August 2, 1870 (application # 927515). (certificate # 716641),

    On his military records, and on his tombstone in St. Denis cemetery, Havertown, PA, his name Loughrey is misspelled Loughery.

    Any information in him or his unit would be greatly appreciated.

  21. The Confederate draft of 1862 was by no means America’s first military draft. There were drafts during the American Revolution. One of the standard questions asked of pension applicants under the Act of 1832 was whether they were drafted, volunteered, or substituted.

  22. Interesting reading… “Reminiscences of a Priivate” by Frank M. Mixson. An uncle of mine in Hagoods volunteers SC

  23. My great-great great grandfather was Anthony Martin Hohn and served with Co.I, 22nd N.C.He suffered a stomach wound between Harpers Ferry and Sharpsburg on September 12,1862. Somehow he survived as an orderlie in the hospital. He walked home to Randolph Co.,N.C. from Danville, Va. near the end of the war and never returned.

  24. If he had been in medical school he may have been attached to a medical group that examined recruits for fitness to serve (and could have very well been an officer), and thus part of a conscription group. My own Great Grandfather Robert Santo (the name it seems is originally from Tuscany Italy) was a medic with the 5th Iowa Cavalry Regiment (his unit was made up of all German emigrants, which he was). I haven’t been able to find which unit he served with YET.
    Unfortunately 3 fold doesn’t do jack for me, even when I enter what information I can substantiate from documents and other reliable sources (which in some cases is almost a biography).
    I couldn’t even find MY OWN military service (Vietnam) and I have the pictures, records, medals, DD214, and an Honorable discharge that prove I was there at some point.
    Just so you know Civil War personnel records (at least the ones I’ve seen while entering them in our local library history archives) were kept on what would be today be Index Cards. They had where you were stationed, if you changed commands (including hospital inpatient admission terms) pay and allotments &c. and your discharge information (invalid, wounded, deceased,honorable &c) I know that (all or some at least) were given (or obtained) by the veteran as those individuals I cataloged had full or almost full sets, and I could track the person’s service, enlistment to discharge, throughout the war.
    So keep looking, new information turns up every day. You might also try the main library were your ancestor lived or moved to (there was a lot of migration after the Civil War) as they may just have a genealogy section or history room even the hole in the wall town I live in does. GOOD LUCK!

    • Robert Santo
      Residence Fort Madison IA; 24 years old.
      Enlisted on 9/17/1861 as a Private.
      On 10/25/1861 he mustered into “F” Co. IA 5th Cavalry
      He was Mustered Out on 10/25/1864 at Nashville, TN
      born in Germany

      Sources used by Historical Data Systems, Inc.:
      – Roster & Record of Iowa Soldiers in the War of Rebellion

      ……

      Robert Santo, Company F, Iowa Cavlary, filed for Invalid Class pension November 7, 1890 in Washington State, Application No. 956,273, Certificate No. 914,324.
      Filed by Attorney Travis & Brown
      U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934

      …………

      Very few Federal Compiled Service Records have been digitized. As such, Fold.3 would not hold them. However, rather than travel to the National Archives in Washington, DC, you can procure his records through a service provided by the Civil War Message Board Portal folks at: http://history-sites.com

  25. good info, didn’t know thanks…i was drafted in1963
    proud to have served…Vietnam Vet doug

  26. Patrick Greeley (b Ireland d St Louis MO) lived many years in ScrantonPA area. He appears on a draftee list in a Scranton newspaper June 4 1864, however I have never found any military records or proof that he was in the Civil War or any military branch. I have been searching quite awhile on Ancestry, Fold3 and other locations. He was way too poor to have been able to afford a substitute. Checking crazy spellings also got no results. Any ideas?

  27. For George Martin: Just browsing these postings…I believe your medical condition mentioned in your post may be “hypertrophy”.

    • Sorry, this message was intended for George Burns.

    • I gave a copy of the certificate to my cardiologist and remarked that I did not know they checked for heart conditions during the civil war. He told me that they had a form of electrocardiography at that time. I think he had an enlarged heart and indeed he did die of a heart attack about the age 50.

  28. For those having trouble finding relatives service records. A couple of suggestions. Try different spellings of the last name or try just the initials of the first name. I have found so many relatives with their names misspelled. For instance one of mine was named Kornegay. I found him on records as Cornega and kenege. Another thing you might do is try the widows pension records. His wife may have collected a pension. You might be able to find information on him through her. I hope this helps.

    • Glenda. That is correct. So many ways to pronounce the first and last name of a person. To be honest with you. I never did think of using the person’s initials to track them down. Thank you for that hint.

    • The problem I have with or without initials is that there are so many with the same names I am looking for:
      William Wilkerson
      W.S. Wilkerson
      W.T. Wilkerson
      William S. Wilkerson
      William T. Wilkerson
      Sometimes the name shows up as Wilkinson.

      Even narrowing it to Texas does not help me. In all the sources I have looked at for military does not give enough information for me to determine if I am looking at my ancestor. I have just about given up!

  29. My GG grandfather, Osburn Kilgo, was conscripted into the State Line Militia in late 1862/early 1863. His wife Sophia Hardy Kilgo went to war with him cooking and washing clothes for the soldiers until the surrender in 1865.

    In February 1863, “Ausburn” Kilgo is shown on the muster roll of Company F, 1st Regiment, Georgia State Line Militia (Home Guard) in Cass (Bartow) County. The State Line Militia was “recruited” to protect the West Point & Atlanta Railroad infrastructure (rails, bridges, terminals, etc.) from Union forces. The West Point & Atlanta RR was a vital link carrying supplies to Confederate forces in Tennessee and points north. State Line Militia was initiated by Governor Joe Brown after the “Great Locomotive Chase” in 1862 when a small group of Union spies commandeered a locomotive (The General) at Big Shanty (later Kennesaw), near Marietta, Georgia, and took it north toward Chattanooga destroying rail, bridges, telegraph lines and railway stations as they went. State Line was not a part of the regular Confederate Army, but was attached to the regular Confederate forces during Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s march from Chattanooga to Atlanta.
    Sofia Hardy accompanied husband Osburn Kilgo to war. According to her Confederate Veteran Widow’s Pension Application dated 8 February 1915:

    “The State of Alabama: Before me, A. P. Longworth, Judge of Probate, Shelby County and for said county personally appeared Mrs Sofia Kilgo(re) being duly sworn deposeth and saith that her husband Osburn Kilgo(re) served in the Confederate War and was a member of Company F, 1st Georgia, that she was his wife and went to war with him in 1862 and cooked & washed for the soldiers until the close of the war in 1865, that the company surrendered in Kingston, Georgia, that she accompanied her said husband all the way through the war into South Carolina and back into Alabama, and then before the war closed we went back into the state of Georgia. She was near the company when the battle of Honey Hill in South Carolina was fought. Affiant says that her said husband served in all about three years in the war; and further says that all the comrades who served with him are now dead. She further says that the two witnesses who made proof for her are now dead, and she is unable to find any other one who served in the war with him.”

    Sofia Hardy Kilgo continued to draw a Confederate soldier’s widow’s pension until her death in 1921.

    • Osborn Kilgo
      in the Alabama, Civil War Soldiers, 1860-1865

      Name: Osborn Kilgo
      Regiment or Unit: 1st Georgia Regiment
      Company Unit: F
      Enlistment Info: Private
      Pension Received?: Yes
      Remarks: Memo from War Dept. as follows: “The name Osborn Kilgo has not been found on the rolls, on file in this office, of Company F of any 1st Georgia organization in the Confederate States Army, and no record has been found of the capture or parole of a man of; This name as a member of any such organization.” Name of Pensioner: Sophia Kilgo, widow. Witnesses: James S. hardy and James A. Thompson.
      Author: Alabama Pension No. 21678, Shelby County.

      Appears he died in 1898. Records show she was receiving a pension in 1902 and still in 1915

  30. I do have a question to ask anyone out there. I have a 1st cousin 2 times removed. His name is James Foudray. Served in the Civil War. He was a member of the Company I, Ninetieth Indiana Regiment, 5th Indiana Cavalry. From the talk I have heard when I was growing up, He was a Pow at Andersonville, Ga., I ordered his Military Record from National Archives. Military Record was of no help to me. Did not get much information from record. Except it said, he died in the war. I then called Andersonville, Ga. Nothing. Then I called Florence, S.C., Nothing. I called South Carolina. Nothing. All I want to know, if he was a Pow prisoner. I would appreciate any hints from all of you. I want to say thank you to all of you for the help and the hints.

    • There are fairly extensive records at Andersonville but many soldiers went to their graves as unknown. I have visited Andersonville and next to my great great Uncles grave is is one marked as unknown. There are many books on Andesonville, some of which include the list of names.

  31. To the Constitution and secession, while no actual portion of the document states such, all states, with New York leading the way, declared at the time of voting to ratify and accept the united states, they also declared thay they could vote themselves out at a later date if they found it necessary. It is part of the record of the founding. There was not actual ‘minutes’ taken at the convention, however, there are many position papers written by the participants covering issues of concern. As an aside there are those papers that clearly define what is and the purpose for the inclusion of ‘natural born citizen’ in regards to the executive.

  32. My great-grandfather, Christopher Heideman, served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. I don’t find any information on your site about him.
    Here is the information:
    Name: Chr. Heideman
    Side: Confederate
    Regiment State/Origin: Texas
    Regiment Name: Capt. Jones’ Co. Texas Light Artillery
    Regiment Name Expanded: Jones’ Company, Texas Light Artillery
    Rank In: Private
    Rank In Expanded: Private
    Rank Out: Private
    Rank Out Expanded: Private
    Film Number: M227 roll 16

    • Chr./Charles Heideman, Private, Company A, Cook’s Regiment Artillery,* enlisted June 3, 1862 by Capt. Fontaine at Galveston for the war, recorded at the Mar/Apr, 1863 muster as absent, on detached service on the Steamer Mary Hill, admitted General Hospital, Houston, Texas, Feb. Int. – Tertian [Intermitant Fever, believe Malaria] September 8, 1863, furloughed September 21, at Picket Camp digging well January, 1864, employed as Company Cook May 1864, unit surrendered May 26, 1865, paroled July 20, 1865 at Galveston, Tx. signing with an ‘X’, “his mark”

      * This company was mustered in June 25, 1861, as Captain Cook’s Company, was assigned to the 3rd (Cook’s) Battalion Texas Heavy Artillery as Company A, September 13,1861,and became (1st) Company A, 1st (Cook’s) Regiment Heavy Artillery about April 28, 1862. It was transferred to a temporary field organization known as Fontaine’s Battalion Artillery about March 30,1863 and finally became Captain O. G. Jones’ Company Texas Light Artillery

      Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Texas

      …………….

      Christopher Heideman, filed Texas pension application A-01565 from Galveston County
      Mary Heideman, filed Widow’s pension application A-30945 and received certificate P-01565, Galveston County
      Index to Texas CSA Pension Files, Virgil D. White, 1989

  33. My Great, Great Grandfather Daniel L. McBride was drafted by the Confederacy in 1864 and served as a prison guard with the 5th North Carolina Senior Reserves probably in Surry County NC. He was 49 years old.

    My Great, Great Grandfather on my mothers side, Henry C. Barnes was drafted by the Union in 1864 and served in Company I, 9th Indiana Infantry and was probably present at the battle of Nashville. He was discharged in 1865 when the 9th went to Texas for occupation duty. He was 44 years old.

  34. “Forced Under Conscription to Keep”. Our famous foul “word” came from the first letter of each of the 4 main words during the Civil War.

    • Sunny, actually the foul word did not come from that phrase, or from the Civil War. Another common folk origin dates it to a similar English acronym, “Fornication Under Consent of the King.” Neither is true. The first use of the word in English goes back to the 15th century (the OED dates it to 1475), and it is a cognate of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic words relating to the act.

  35. I believe the word was used a few hundred years before the Civil War.

  36. There was a William Darbro who was a prisoner of war that was killed by the firing squad in 1864 and buried in Eminence Cemetery in Henry County KY. I have several relatives but don’t know if they were drafted or volunteered as with this one. A different Wm Darbro was wounded at Shiloh 1861 April 6 and was removed to Grants tent so he wouldn’t lose a limb if he passed out, he got a pension and died in 1896 in OK.

  37. George Martin… I’m looking for the enlistment card, or paperwork of Patrick Isaac Nolan out of Twiggs Ga 26th infantry co I. He enlisted 3/11/1862. He was injured in the second battle of Manasses. I have some records but his name is misspelled as P. Noland.
    Please help. I’m looking for his birthday. Next of kin. I know he was born in 1827 just not what day. Or his parents for ancestry tracing.
    Thank you.

    • When all else fails, look up who aplide for and received a Civil War pension. That’s where I found my great grandfathers information.

    • I have the pension records. They do not show anything. Can I send you a personal email with them and you let me know if I’m missing some?

    • Patrick Nolan
      Residence Twiggs County GA;
      Enlisted on 3/11/1862 as a Private.
      On 3/11/1862 he mustered into “E” Co. GA 26th Infantry
      (date and method of discharge not given)
      * Detailed Richmond, VA (date not stated) (As shoemaker. 1863- Aug. 1864.)
      * Furloughed (date and place not stated) (Wounded. At home ’til close of war)
      * Wounded (date and place not stated) (Permanently disabled)

      Sources used by Historical Data Systems, Inc.:
      – Roster of Confederate Soldiers of Georgia 1861-1865

      …………..

      Patrick Nolan, Private, Company I, 26th Regiment Georgia Infantry,* enlisted March 4, 1862 in Coffee County by Capt. Griffin for 3 years, received gunshot wound right leg at Manassas August 28, 1862, admitted Receiving and Wayside Hospital, Richmond, Va. June 29, 1863, transferred to Chimborazo Hospital next day, , old gunshot wound, June 30, 41 year old Farmer, transferred to Winder Hospital, Richmond, August 17, Diarrhoea, Ac., returned to duty September 12, admitted General Hospital No. 9 October 10 1863, transferred next day to Winder Hospital No. 4, admitted General Hospital No. 9 December 2, 1863, transferred same day to Winder Hospital No. 1, receipted for an issue of clothing at Winder November 1863, detailed as Shoemaker, Richmond, Va., February, 1864 still recorded there August 31, receipted for an issue of clothing September 21, 1864, signs pay vouchers with an ‘X’, his mark, no further records

      * This company was successively designated as Captain Griffin’s Company and (New) Company E, 13th Regiment Georgia Infantry, and Company I, 26th Regiment Georgia Infantry

      Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Georgia

    • Yes! 🙂 and os there an enlistment card available? Looking for his birthday and next of kin.
      The pension records I have do not have any of this information on it 🙁
      Thank you so much.

  38. Looking for records concerning Barnabas G. McAllister b. 1 June 1816, he was (supposedly) a General in the local militia before the Civil War, as well as sheriff of his county and member of the state legislature, His wife was Anna Parker and they had no children. He died 24 Sep 1890 in Saltillo, MS. This all according to an original newspaper clipping left by my grandmother (b. 1872) who (supposedly) knew him personally. Any help will be most welcome.

  39. Pickens County Sheriff’s Office, Carrollton, Alabama
    History of the Sheriff’s Office
    Sheriff Barnabas G. McAllister
    Term: 1854 – 1855
    http://pickenscountyalsheriff.org/history.php

  40. George Martin… I’m looking for information on my GG Grandpa Alexander Wallace 1848-1922. I found this somewhere, maybe it was on Fold3;

    Military 1863 • Louisiana, USA
    Enlisted as a Private in Louisiana Cavalry, Company A, 18th Battalion.

    He would have been about 15 years old?
    If you could point me towards more information I would appreciate it.
    Thank you.

    • Alexander Jourdan Wallace, filed Texas Confederate Pension A-24638 from Grayson County Texas, served two years as a Private, Company A, 18th Battalion, Louisiana Cavalry. Filed August 30, 1913, approved September 1 and allowed from December 1, 1913

      Enlisted “ . . . late in the fall, or early winter of the year 1864. . . he was captured by the United States forces near Baton Rouge, Louisiana . . . taken to Ship Island, & here imprisoned & kept in prison until a short time before the final surrender, when he was exchanged at some point West of the Mississippi River & was unable to rejoin his Company, which was with Gen’l Bedford Forrest in Alabama & East of the Mississippi River – The said Wallace was of good character, & made a good soldier while in the company.”

      He died in City Hospital, “Cirrhosis of he liver,” July 21, 1922 and buried in Cavalry Cemetery, Grayson County, Texas. His daughter, Mrs. Jermie Dowd, 517 W. Crawford St., Denison, Texas filed Application for Mortuary Warrant

      Roll Description : Pension File Nos· 24634 to 24651, Application Years 1911 to 1913
      Alabama, Texas and Virginia, Confederate Pensions, 1884-1958

      ……

      This is the record of another soldier of his unit and may be that of Alexander’s also
      * POW 9/21/1864 Baton Rouge, LA
      * Confined 10/10/1864 New Orleans, LA
      * Confined 10/20/1864 Ship Island, MS
      * Confined 11/10/1864 Fort Columbus, NY
      * Confined 11/19/1864 Elmira, NY

    • Hello and thank you very much for the information on Alexander J Wallace.
      So do you think I could receive documents by Requesting Copies of Older (pre-WWI) Military Service Records from The National Archives?
      Mike

  41. i’m looking for information on my GGG Grandfather William Bizzell (Bissell) and his grandson, also William Bizzell. My GGG Grandfather was born in Winston, Forsyth County, North Carolina in 1805. We have information that he served as a private with Co D, 2nd US Colored Calvary from June, 1864 to 1865. He lived in Xenia, OH in 1890. There is a question whether the William Bizzell this info refers to is my GGG Grandfather or that of his grandson, also William Bizzell because of the age, 59, he would have been while serving. This having been said, we do have Widow’s pension records indicating his 2nd wife, Jane Manly received his pension. We have found no information on his grandson who had his same first name, William. The info was that he did not live to adulthood. They were never slaves.

    • William Bissell, Private Company D, 2nd Regiment, U. S. Colored Cavalry, 45 year old Farmer, 5’ 5”, light complexion, blue eyes, dark hair, born in Hertford, N. C., enlisted January 1, 1864 at Fort Monroe for 3 years, engaged in action at Suffolk, Va. March 9, 1864, recorded at the May/June, 1864 muster as sick in U. S. A. General Hospital, City Point, Va., subsequently present at the next bi-monthly muster, sick again at City Point October 31 through year’s end, present with company at the Mar/Apr, 1865 muster, mustered out May 5, 1865 while patient at General Hospital, Fort Monroe, Va., discharged for disability June 7, 1865

      Compiled Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served with the United States Colored Troops: 1st through 5th United States Colored Cavalry, 5th Massachusetts Cavalry (Colored), 6th United States Colored Cavalry

    • Correction, his record is filed under the spelling Bizzell. An alternate, Bissell is found on one of more of the cards in his file.

      I could not find a record of a pension application in either his or his widow’s name.

    • Thank you so much for the information you have provided. This is very helpful to me.

    • William Bazell
      in the 1880 United States Federal Census
      Name: William Bazell
      [William Bizzell]
      Age: 65
      Birth Year: abt 1815
      Birthplace: North Carolina
      Home in 1880: Xenia, Greene, Ohio
      Race: Mulatto
      Gender: Male
      Relation to Head of House: Self (Head)
      Marital Status: Married
      Spouse’s Name: Elizabeth Bazell
      Father’s Birthplace: North Carolina
      Mother’s Birthplace: North Carolina
      Occupation: Farmer
      Household Members:
      Name Age
      William Bazell 65
      Elizabeth Bazell 50
      Charles Bazell 10
      Oliver Bazell 8

      ……………..

      William Bizzell

      Birth: unknown
      North Carolina, USA
      Death: Sep. 21, 1896
      Xenia, Greene County, Ohio, USA
      Children:
      Abner Perry Bizzell (1841 – 1915)*

      *Calculated relationship

      Burial:
      Cherry Grove Cemetery
      Xenia
      Greene County
      Ohio, USA

      “The remains of the late Wm. Bizzell were laid to rest in Cherry Grove cemetery yesterday. His daughter Mrs. Sara Guina, of Indianapolis and his son King of Springfield, attended the funeral. Rev. Peter Everett conduced the services.”
      As printed in the “Xenia Daily Gazette”, 9 Sep 1896.
      Source: http://www.Newspapers.com

      Find A Grave Memorial # 45579823

  42. I am very curious about Erick Montgomery’s ancestor, Thomas Benton Simpson b in TN 1842. My great grandfather was Thomas Benton Simpson b 1860 to George Washington Simpson b 1830 a soldier in the Civil war who died in 1863. There must be a family connection. I’m curious about the Benton middle name as my own father was named Joseph Benton Cummings.

    • Where did your Thomas Benton Simpson live? Mine was in Sumner County, Tennessee where he was born in 1842, and lived all of his life until he died in 1922. He was the son of Enoch Simpson (b. 1797 Caswell County, NC), and his second wife, Martha Jane (Johnson) Turner (b. 1821 Sumner County, TN).

      Where did your TB Simpson live?

      I feel confident that my Thomas Benton Simpson was named for the well known Whig politician of that day named Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858) of Missouri. You can Google Thomas Hart Benton and find a great deal of information about him.

  43. George Martin- I don’t need anything, just wanted to say, Great Job! 🙂

  44. My family had an interesting staff story. My great grandfather served in the New York State Volunteer Infantry from 1861 to 1863. His service ended in June 1863. In July 1863 the Federal draft law went into effect — and he was drafted! He could prove that he had served so he was dismissed, but if he hadn’t been able to he might have had to serve twice!

    • My Great Grandfather Francis DeMars also served with NY Infantry. At the end of the War he was stationed in Charleston, SC, probably at Folly Beach. He met my Great Grandmother in Charleston, Caroline Betsill. He was transferred to Orangeburg, SC where his unit was disbanded and he married and stayed in Orange. Does that make him a damn Yankee?

    • Technically, he would have been considered a Damned Yankee. However, it seems he redeemed himself and won the respect of his Southern folks.

      Name: Francis Demars
      Residence: Albany, New York
      Age at Enlistment: 22
      Enlistment Date: 4 Dec 1863
      Rank at enlistment: Private
      Enlistment Place: Albany, New York
      State Served: New York
      Survived the War?: Yes
      Service Record: Enlisted in Company A, New York 54th Infantry Regiment on 04 Dec 1863.Promoted to Full Corporal on 01 Jan 1865.Promoted to Full Sergeant on 01 Mar 1865.Mustered out on 14 Apr 1866 at Charleston, SC.Birth Date: abt 1841
      Sources: New York: Report of the Adjutant-General
      ………..

      Name: Francis Demass
      [Francis Demars]
      Age: 39
      Birth Year: abt 1841
      Birthplace: New York
      Home in 1880: Orangeburgh, Orangeburg, South Carolina
      Race: White
      Gender: Male
      Relation to Head of House: Self (Head)
      Marital Status: Married
      Spouse’s Name: Caroline Demass
      Father’s Birthplace: France
      Mother’s Birthplace: Canada
      Occupation: Grocer & Liquor Dealer
      Household Members:
      Name Age
      Francis Demass 39
      Caroline Demass 37
      William G. Demass 13
      Gurtrude Demass 11
      Frances O. Demass 9
      Francis Demass 8
      Mary Demass 6
      Carrie Demass 3
      Frederick Demass 4m
      Annie Betstill 39

      ……

      Find A Grave Memorial# 44138783

    • New comment on Fold3 Blog

      Chris Brennan commented on America’s First Military Draft Begins: April 16, 1862.

      in response to rjvfold3:

      On April 16, 1862, the Confederacy—in need of troops to fight in its armies—passed the Conscription Act, the first effective general military draft in America. When the Civil War began, the Confederacy had set its volunteers’ terms of enlistment for one year. However, as the year mark neared, it became obvious that the war would […]

      My family had an interesting staff story. My great grandfather served in the New York State Volunteer Infantry from 1861 to 1863. His service ended in June 1863. In July 1863 the Federal draft law went into effect — and he was drafted! He could prove that he had served so he was dismissed, but if he hadn’t been able to he might have had to serve twice!

      Reply Comments
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  45. See above